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  • 4. William Alonso, "Urban Zero Population Growth," Daedalus, vol. 102, no. 4, fall 1973, pp. 191-206. The article is reprinted in Scott, Management and Control, vol. 1, ch. 5.
  • 5. Ernest F. Schumacher, Small Is Beautiful: A Study of Economics as If People Mattered, Harper & Row, New York, 1975. Previously published in Great Britain.
  • 6. A more detailed description of the Ramapo ordinance and litigation, as well as references to the large planning literature that developed around Ramapo, may be found in any of the first six editions of this book.
  • 7. William Fischel, "The Property Rights Approach to Zoning," Land Economics, vol. 54, no. 1, February 1978, pp. 64-81, and subsequent books and articles by Fischel.
  • 8. For a presentation of the view that environmental controls have been used to defend privilege, see Bernard J. Frieden,

The Environmental Protection Hustle, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1979.

  • 9. The average number of persons per housing unit has been declining ever since the end of World War II. One factor has been the increase in real per capita income in the United States. In the last several decades, a second factor has been the increasing percentage of older adults in the population, a group that typically lives in one- or two-person households. That trend may have been temporarily reversed by the recession, the slowdown in new construction, and the increased number of young adults living with parents.
  • 10. Many counties in or near metropolitan areas use preferential tax treatment to keep land in agricultural use. In general, this means taxing it at a rate appropriate to its value in agricultural use rather than its market value as sold for nonagricultural use, say, residential or commercial development.
  • 11. In low-lying areas near the sea, a drop in the water table, caused by excessive use of groundwater or a reduction in surface water available for aquifer recharge, will cause salt-water from the ocean to move in. This can cause changes in vegetation and wildlife and also render groundwater unfit for drinking.
  • 12. For details see John M. DeGrove, Land, Growth and Politics, Planners Press, American Planning Association, Chicago, 1984, ch. 4.
  • 13. Teresa Austin, "Pay as You Grow," Civil Engineering, February 1992, pp. 64-65.
  • 14. Arthur C. Nelson, Raymond J. Burby, Edward Feser, Casey J. Dawkins, Emil E. Malizia, and Robert Quercio, "Urban Containment and Central City Revitalization," Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 70, no. 4, autumn 2004, pp. 411-425.
  • 15. Reid Ewing, "Is Los Angeles-Style Sprawl Desirable?" Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 67, no. 1, winter 1997, pp. 107-119.
  • 16. Details on the Maryland plan may be obtained from the state's department of planning website, available at www.mdp. htm.
  • 17. John W. Freece and Gerrit-Jan Knapp, "Smart Growth in Maryland: Looking Forward and Looking Back," Idaho Law Review, vol. 43, 2007, p. 446. This article may also be found on the website of 1000 Friends of Maryland. See also the National Center for Smart Growth Education and

Research (www.smarthgrowth.umd.

edu) and the State of Maryland Planning Department (

  • 18. For a discussion of the meaning of sustainable development and some of its history, see Virginia W. MacLaren, "Urban Sustainability Reporting," Journal of the American Planning Association, spring 1996, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 184-202; and Scott Campbell, "Green Cities, Growing Cities, Just Cities," Journal of the American Planning Association, summer 1996, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 296-311.
  • 19. The idea that no-growth conditions would tend to lock the poor in their place indefinitely has been present in the planning literature for many years. See, for example, Willard R. Johnson, "Should the Poor Buy No-Growth?" Management and Control of Growth, Urban Land Institute, Washington, DC, 1975, vol. I, pp. 415-425. Some writers argue that the terms economic development and economic growth do not mean exactly the same thing. Economic growth clearly means an increase in total or per capita output. Economic development is taken by some to mean some movement toward a better economic situation without necessarily implying an increase in total output. For example, if the same output were achieved with less environmental impact or with better working conditions, some might argue that economic development had occurred even if there were no increase in total output. However, for purposes of this argument, the terms economic development and economic growth can be used synonymously.
  • 20. Edward J. Jepson, Jr., "The Adoption of Sustainable Development Policies and Techniques in U.S. Cities," Journal of Planning Education and Research, no. 23, winter 2004, pp. 229-241.
  • 21. Some writers on sustainable development have included a degree of local selfsufficiency in addition to the three Es as a goal.
  • 22. Robert R.M. Verchick, Facing Catastrophe in a Post Katrina World, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2010.
  • 23. Campbell Robertson, "A Lesson for Detroit in Efforts to Aid a New Orleans Devastated by Katrina," New York Times, Section B, February 23, 2014.
  • 24. From the Times-Picayune, available online at / new.
  • 25. Times-Picayune, April 30, 2013, available online at
  • 26. Maps showing the results from Katrina and the Corps 500-year storm estimate may be found at ssf/2013/hu.
  • 27. Some planning for restoration of the Gulf is ongoing. In June 2012 the President signed the Restore the Gulf Coast Act to allocate funds from the Deepwater Horizon (British Petroleum) oil spill settlement. Sixty percent of the funds will go to the Gulf Coast Ecosystem Council whose directors include the Governors of the five affected states (Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas and a number of members of the President's Cabinet). So some big picture studies and thinking will be done.
  • 28. "Economic Impact of Hurricane Sandy," U.S. Department of Commerce, Economic Statistics Administration, Office of Chief Economist, 2013. Available at commerce. gov.
  • 29. In 2005 Malcolm Bowman of the Storm Surge Research Group of the University of the State of New York had written in an Op.Ed. piece in The New York Times, "The question is not if a catastrophic Northeaster will hit New York but when." In 2009 the group laid out a preliminary design.
  • 30., March 26, 2013.
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