- 1. In the economist's terms there will be an inefficient adjustment at the margin with some users imposing losses greater than the benefits they receive, and which they would not choose to impose if they had to face the full price for those losses.
- 2. Bjorn Lomborg, The Skeptical Environmentalist, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001, and Cool It, Vintage Press, New York, 2007.
- 3. Numerous polls on the subject of attitudes have been done by Gallup, Pew Charitable Trust, and other organizations. To see an assortment of them google a phrase like "global warming and polls."
- 4. D. Morgenstern, R.A. Pizer, and J.S. Shih, "The Cost of Environmental Protection," Review of Economics and Statistics, vol. 83, no. 4, November 1, 2001, pp. 732-737.
- 5. U.S. Energy Administration, Annual Energy Review, 2010, available online.
- 6. From Title I of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) of 1969, PL 90-190.
- 7. For a detailed discussion of this process and an explanation of the economic rationale for
pollution rights, see John M. Levy, Essential Microeconomics for Public Policy Analysis, Praeger, New York, 1995, ch. 12.
- 8. Details may be found on the website of the Air Resources Board of the California Environmental Protection Agency.
- 9. For an account of this process, see Environmental Quality, 1983, p. 253.
- 10. Ibid.
- 11. A large literature has developed on the greenfields-brownfields issue, with a heavy emphasis on the how-to-do-it aspects of brownfields redevelopment. See, for example, David Yaussy, "Brownfields Initiatives Sweep Across the Country," Environmental Compliance and Litigation Strategy, vol. 10, no. 11, April 1995, p. 1; "Redeveloping Contaminated Sites: Economic Realities," Urban Land, June 1995; and James A. Chalmers and Scott A. Roehr, "Issue in the Valuation of Contaminated Property," Appraisal Journal, vol. 61, no. 1, January 1993, pp. 28-41.
- 12. Bradley K. Townsend, "The Economics of Health Risk Analysis," in Levy, Essential Microeconomics, p. 217.