1. John Maynard Keynes, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, first published in 1936. The quote is from the last page of the final chapter.
2. This example is taken, with some modification, from Edward C. Banfield, "Ends and Means in Planning," in A Reader in Planning Theory, Andreas Faludi, ed., Pergamon Press, New York, 1973.
3. For a description of the rational model, see Martin Meyerson and Edward C.
Banfield, "Supplement: Note on Conceptual Scheme," Politics, Planning and the Public Interest, The Free Press, Glencoe, IL, 1955, pp. 314ff.
4. The term was invented by Herbert Simon. See his Administrative Behavior, The Macmillan Company, New York, 1955.
5. Charles E. Lindblom, "The Science of Muddling Through," Public Administration Review, spring 1959. Reprinted in Faludi, Planning Theory, p. 163.
6. A commonly cited example of this sort of contradiction is federal housing policy. We have, over the years, spent many billions of federal funds through Urban Renewal, Community Development, Urban Development Action Grants, housing subsidies, and the like to restore the economic vitality of central cities. We also have a federal tax code that provides very powerful incentives to the construction of suburban housing. To some degree the contradictions may exist because we do not have a unified planning process for federal urban policy. The committees that write the tax law, for example, are not the same as the committees that write the housing and economic development legislation; nor is there any statutory requirement that they consult each other.
7. Lindblom, "Muddling Through."
9. Amitai Etzioni, "Mixed Scanning: A 'Third' Approach to Decision Making," in Faludi, Planning Theory, pp. 217-230.
10. Judith E. Innes and David E. Booher, Planning with Complexity: An Introduction to Collaborative Rationality for Public Policy, Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, London and New York, 2010, ch. 3. See also Judith E. Innes, David E. Booher, and Sarah DiVittorio, "Strategies for Megaregion Governance: Collaborative Dialogue, Networks and Self-Organization," Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 77, no. 1, winter 2011, pp. 55-68; and Reid
Ewing, "Research You Can Use," Planning, February 2011, p. 35.
11. Paul Davidoff, "Advocacy and Pluralism in Planning," Journal of the American Planning Association, vol. 31, no. 4, November 1965.
12. This view is similar to that expressed by the widely cited philosopher John Rawls, that how just a society is should be judged by how it treats the least fortunate of its members. See his A Theory of Justice, Belknap Press of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 1971.
13. Milton Friedman, Capitalism and Freedom, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, 1962.
14. For example, it has often been suggested that the reformist initiatives such as unemployment insurance, the right to collective bargaining, and the Social Security system during the Great Depression of the 1930s may well have prevented radical social change in the United States.
15. For a statement of this view at the time it was widely expressed see Norman I. Fain- stein and Susan S. Fainstein, "New Debates in Urban Planning: The Impact of Marxist Theory Within the U.S.," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol. 3, no. 3, 1979, pp. 381-402. Reprinted in Critical Readings in Planning Theory, Chris Paris, ed., Pergamon Press, New York, 1982, pp. 147-174.
16. Michael Brooks, "Four Critical Junctures in the History of the Urban Planning Profession," Journal of the American Planning Association, spring 1988, pp. 241-248.