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Combining Economic and Political Development


IntroductionThe Economic Heritage of AuthoritarianismWell-Established Recipes Do Not Support Democratic TransitionsConclusion: Does Democratisation Have a Chance?ReferencesReflections on the Arab UprisingsIntroductionOn the Entrenchment of Arab AutocracyOn the Unravelling of Autocracy in a Few Arab CountriesOn the Uncertainty of the Transition towards DemocracyOn the Political and Economic Challenges of Sustaining Democratic TransitionsConclusionReferencesRethinking the Rentier CurseIntroductionNatural Resources and Development in the Middle EastFrom Resource Curse to Rent CurseFinance and the Rentier StructureExternal Recycling of RentsConclusionReferencesA Brief Political Economy of Energy Subsidies in the Middle East and North AfricaIntroductionA Brief Background on Energy SubsidiesIssues with Measuring Energy SubsidiesEnergy Subsidies andmena Fiscal StabilityEnergy Subsidies and Social EquityEnergy Subsidies and Domestic Energy ConsumptionReforming Energy Subsidies in menaGradual Reform Efforts in the Levant and North AfricaYemen’s Failed Reform EffortsEgypt’s 2014 Five-to-Midnight ReformThe Iranian Reform ExperienceConclusionsReferencesThe Political Economy of Distribution in the Middle East: Is There Scope for a New Social Contract?IntroductionCurrent Distributional StructuresPublic EmploymentSubsidiesHistorical RootsLack of Other Social Safety MechanismsDistortionary Economic ImpactsHow the Distributional System Creates Social StratificationLabour Market ConsequencesRegressive Energy SubsidiesState, Business and Citizen in the Distributional SystemAttempts at ChangePotential Alternatives to Current Distributional RegimesThe Long Run: Modern Social Security SystemsThe Short Run: Cash Grants to All CitizensConsequences for Labour MarketsConsequences for Income DistributionConsequences for Energy ConsumptionPotential MagnitudesPolitical Feasibility of a TransitionPolitical Economy ImplicationsConclusionReferencesArab States as Shareholders: Origins and ConsequencesIntroduction: Emergence of Arab States as CapitalistsStructure of State ShareholdingsOwnership and Regulation of mena soesThe Role of the State in Capital MarketsConclusionReferencesCan Finance and Credit Enable Economic Growth and Democracy?IntroductionCapital Markets, Governance, and the EconomyThe Financial Structures of oecd and mena Economies Show Significant DifferencesFinance and Democracy in menaThe Important Role of the Market for Debt SecuritiesThe Market for Debt Securities in menaFinancial Crises and the Development of RegulationsConclusionReferencesAgriculture and Development in the Wake of the Arab SpringIntroductionThe Importance of Agriculture in menaHistorical Evolution of Land, Food, and Agricultural PoliciesThe State of Food Security in menaDomestic Food Prices and the Politics of SubsidiesMacro Food Security, Import Dependence and Self-sufficiency AgendasWorld Market Dependence and Trade-based Food SecurityChallenges of Agriculture, Food Security, and Development in MENAConclusionReferencesMass Migration and Uprisings in Arab Countries: An Analytical FrameworkIntroductionExit or Voice Trade-offMigratory Outcomes of RevoltDiaspora Impact on Homeland PoliticsReturn of ExilesExternal VotingPolitical RemittancesConclusionReferencesEgypt's Economic Transition: Challenges and ProspectsIntroductionPresident Al-Sisi’s Impoverished InheritanceFiscal Problems and SolutionsA New Business Elite?Labour Force in Search of JobsKey Sectors and Their MaladiesSisinomics: A Model to Meet these Challenges?ConclusionReferencesOil Rent and Regional Economic Development in MENAIntroductionPolitics in mena is RegionalThe Impact of the Oil Rent on Regional Economic RelationsMain Trends and Opportunities in Regional Economic Relations: Labour, Capital and Merchandise TradeMerchandise TradeMovements of LabourMovements of CapitalConclusion: The Unresolved Regional Political OrderReferences
 
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