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  • 1. UNICEF Benin and UNICEF WACARO 2001: 1.
  • 2. Extract from a Briefing Paper available freely at: pdf_docs/PDACP134.pdf. Last accessed 12/02/16.
  • 3. In Benin, these began as early as 2002, when the Family Ministry adopted a strategy to combat trafficking and migration in the South (MFPSS and ARD 2002).
  • 4. This tone is featured heavily too in Benin’s National Child Trafficking Study. The authors note that ‘poverty is by far the major cause of children’s vulnerability to trafficking,’ but add that since ‘not all poor households are prepared to send their children away,’ we must also consider questions of ‘responsible parenthood,’ ‘poor family planning,’ ‘polygamy’ and the propensity of ‘ignorant’ villagers to be ‘duped’ by false dreams and promises (MFE and UNICEF Benin 2007: 7-8).
  • 5. All names in this book have been changed to protect the identity of informants. At times, and particularly in Appendix B, I also avoid identifying specific institutions or institutional affiliation, so as to avoid the possibility that any informants could be identified by virtue of their professional association(s).
  • 6. From USDOS 2006: 14.
  • 7. Much of this section draws on Howard (2013).
  • 8. In this sense, it is notable that anti-traffickers typically ‘think’ the state through the metaphor of the body: the government is the mind, the borders are the skin, and just as the autonomous mind decides what the body will ingest, so the government must decide over who comes in or out. Anything else would be a violation and a potential danger.
  • 9. index.htm. Last accessed 12/02/16.
  • 10. For an especially accessible example of this discourse, see Beninese singer and UNICEF Ambassador, Angelique Kidjo, linking birth registration and trafficking here: watch?v=FDa31Hrsy-I. Last accessed 12/02/16.
  • 11. Benin’s National Study, for example touts ‘fighting poverty’ as one of the main ways that the country addresses trafficking (MFE and UNICEF 2007: 77), largely through transversal measures that form part of the Poverty Reduction Strategy (MFE and ILO 2008: 65-7).
  • 12. ‘ CT’ = ‘child trafficking.’
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