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Atmosphere and Climate


Aims and ScopeEditorContributorsSection I: AtmosphereAcid Rain and Nitrogen Deposition IntroductionSources and DistributionHuman Health EffectsStructural ImpactsEcosystem ImpactsReducing Acidic Deposition EffectsReferencesAcid Rain and Precipitation ChemistryIntroductionThe Chemistry of Acid RainDrop-Scale Transport Processes of Acid RainEnvironmental Factors Influencing the Acid Rain Formation and ImpactsReferencesAir Pollutants: Elevated Carbon DioxideIntroductionAtmospheric Change: Concentrations and TrendsEffects of O[sub(3)] and CO[sub(2)] AloneInteractive Effects of Air Pollutants and CO[sub(2)]ConclusionReferencesAlbedoIntroductionFactors Affecting AlbedoMeasurement of AlbedoConclusionsReferencesArctic OscillationIntroductionAO and Atmospheric CirculationGlobal Effects of AOAO and Northern Hemisphere Annular ModeAO and North Atlantic OscillationAO and Arctic WarmingSpatial Variation of AOReferencesAsian MonsoonMajor Features of Asian Monsoon Climate and Its Two Sub-Systems: South Asian Monsoon and East Asian MonsoonIntroductionVariability of Asian MonsoonsHuman–Monsoon InteractionGlobal MonsoonReferencesBibliographyAtmospheric Acid DepositionMajor Emission Sources and TrendsTrends in Acid DepositionEnvironmental Effects of Acid DepositionConclusion: Acid Deposition Today and in the FutureReferencesAtmospheric Circulation: GeneralIntroductionOverturning CirculationPoleward Energy Transport by the General CirculationRole of the Hydrological Cycle in the General CirculationAsymmetric Flow: Teleconnection Patterns, MonsoonsHuman Effects: CO[sub(2)] , Aerosols, Land Cover ChangeConclusionReferencesCirculation Patterns: Atmospheric and OceanicIntroductionCirculation Patterns of the TropicsConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesBibliographyDew Point TemperatureIntroductionDefinition and ConceptsDetermination of Dew Point TemperatureReferencesEstimating Arctic Sea-Ice Shortwave AlbedoIntroductionArctic Sea-Ice Albedo DatasetsDirect-Estimation AlgorithmConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesFrontsIntroductionDefinitionFormationCross-Frontal CirculationCyclones, Jet Streams, and FrontsWeather Associated with FrontsOther Fronts and Front-Like PhenomenaImpacts of FrontsConclusionReferencesLand–Atmosphere InteractionsIntroductionProcessesNatural PhenomenaManmade ActivitiesBibliographyOzone and Ozone DepletionIntroductionAtmospheric OzoneOzone DepletionConclusionReferencesTranspiration and Physical Evaporation: United States VariabilityIntroductionSeasonal and Regional Variability of Et over the Conterminous University of Maryland United StatesConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesWater Storage: AtmosphericIntroductionWater VaporThe Hydrologic CycleTotal Abundance of Global Water VaporGlobal Distribution of Water VaporVertical Distribution of Water VaporResidence Time in the AtmosphereMeasuring Atmospheric Water VaporConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesSection II Weather and ClimateAgroclimatologyIntroductionAgroclimatology Today: Some Important VariablesConclusionGlossaryAcknowledgmentsReferencesClimate: ClassificationIntroductionClimate Classification SchemesConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesClimate: Extreme EventsIntroductionSamplingClimate ChangeConclusionReferencesClimate and ClimatologyIntroductionClimate System ControlsClimate ClassificationConclusionReferencesBibliographyClimatology: Moist Enthalpy and Long- Term Anomaly TrendsIntroductionDefinition of Moist EnthalpyClimatologyDev Niyogi Moist Enthalpy Variability and Anomaly TrendsConclusion: On the Importance of Heat ContentAcknowledgmentsReferencesCrops and the Atmosphere: Trace Gas ExchangesIntroductionImpacts of Trace Gases on CropsFactors Controlling Trace Gas ExchangePlant Physiological ControlsInternal Transfer ResistancesConclusionReferencesDrought: ManagementIntroductionShifting the Emphasis from Crisis to Drought Risk ManagementDrought Risk Challenges and OpportunitiesConclusionReferencesDrought: Precipitation, Evapotranspiration, and Soil Moisture Joshua B. FisherIntroductionConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesDrought: ResistanceIntroductionDiscussionDrought Resistance TraitsHierarchy of Drought Resistance TraitsDrought Resistance Traits in Terms of the Passioura Water ModelConclusionReferencesEl Niño, La Niña, and the Southern OscillationIntroductionWhat is ENSO?Mean Tropical Pacific Ocean–Atmosphere InteractionsENSO EvolutionPredicting El Nino EventsConclusionReferencesBibliographyMeteorology: TropicalIntroductionMajor Climate and Weather Systems in the TropicsConclusionReferencesOcean–Atmosphere InteractionsIntroductionAir–Sea FeedbackDistribution of Air–Sea FluxesDiagnosis of Air–Sea FeedbackDynamical InteractionsConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesOceans: Observation and PredictionIntroductionWhat is the Path Forward?How are Observations Made in the Oceans?What Numerical Ocean Models are Available?ConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesTropical CyclonesIntroduction Using a Western Hemisphere PerspectiveLife CycleTropical Cyclone StructureDamage from Tropical CyclonesGlobal Tropical Cyclone Prediction, Climatology, and TerminologyExcellent Background Information and Imbedded Links on Hurricanes are Available at the Following Websites (Accessed September 2, 2013)ReferencesBibliographyUrban Heat IslandsIntroductionTypes of UHIs and Their CharacteristicsCauses of the UHI: The Urban Energy BudgetCauses of the UHI: Characteristics of the Urban SurfaceWeather and Climate InfluencesHeat Island ImpactsReferencesWind Speed Probability DistributionIntroductionGeneral Features of the Wind Speed PdfEmpirical Models of the Wind Speed Probability DistributionRelation of Wind Speed with Vector Wind Component PdfsMechanistic Models of the Wind Speed Probability DistributionConclusionsReferencesSection III Climate ChangeClimate ChangeIntroductionNatural Causes of Climate ChangeHuman Causes of Climate ChangeClimate ModelsDetecting and Attributing Climate ChangeConclusionReferencesBibliographyClimate Change: Boreal ForestsIntroductionClimate ChangeBoreal ForestsConclusionReferencesClimate Change: Coastal Marine EcosystemsIntroductionClimate Change in the OceanBiological Responses to Climate Change in Coastal Marine EcosystemsEconomic ImplicationsManaging for RiskConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesClimate Change: Polar RegionsIntroductionThe Geological Record of the Cenozoic Era and the Quaternary  PeriodHoloceneThe AnthropoceneThe ArcticAntarcticaConcluding RemarksReferencesBibliographyClimate Change: Effects on Habitat Suitability of Tree of Heaven along the Appalachian TrailIntroductionMethodResultDiscussionConclusionReferencesClimate Change: Ecosystem Dynamics along the Appalachian TrailIntroductionMethods and ResultsConclusionReferencesSpatial and Temporal Variations in Global Land Surface PhenologyIntroductionData and MethodsResults and DiscussionConclusionsReferencesSpatiotemporal Variations in Precipitation and Temperature over Northeastern Eurasia, 1961–2010IntroductionStudy Region and DataMethodSpatial Pattern of the Trends of PRCP, T[sub(max)] , T[sub(min)] , and DTRChanges in Regionally Average PRCP,T[sub(max)] ,T[sub(min)], and DTRDiscussionConclusionsAcknowledgmentsReferencesIndex
 
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