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Analysis of Nanoplastics and Microplastics in Food

Section I: Microplastics and Nanoplastics: Microplastics and Nanoplastics: Origin, Fate and EffectsIntroductionMicro/Nanoplastic Sources within the EnvironmentMicro/Nanoplastics on LandMicro/Nanoplastics in the Freshwater EnvironmentMicro/Nanoplastics in the Marine EnvironmentMicroplastics in the AtmosphereMicro/Nanoplastics Effects on PlantsMicro/Nanoplastics Effects on the Food ChainSeparation and Analysis of Micro/Nanoplastics in Environmental SamplesAnalytical Methodologies to Assess the Micro/Nanoplastics within the EnvironmentThreat of Micro/Nanoplastics to Human BeingsOral RouteDermal RouteInhalationConclusionReferences: Plastic Waste in the Aquatic Environment: Impacts and ManagementIntroductionPlastic Waste in the Aquatic EcosystemImpacts of Plastic Waste on the Biota of the Aquatic EcosystemImpact on Faunal CommunitiesCoastal and Marine BirdsFishMammalsReptilesInvertebratesInvasive SpeciesEcotoxicologyManagement and Preventive MeasuresPrevention and ControlManagement ProceduresPublic Awareness and EducationRecycling of Plastics through Environmentally Sound MannersEstablishment of a Waste Stock Exchange (WSE)Conversion of Plastics Waste into ArtifactsEncourage the Use of Bio-Based and Biodegradable PlasticsIncrement in the Thickness of Plastic FilmsHousehold Segregation, Reuse and RecyclingEnergy RecoveryConversion of Plastics Waste into Liquid FuelPlasma Pyrolysis TechnologyLegislative MeasuresConclusionsReferencesSection II: Plastics in the Environment: Microplastics and Nanoplastics in the EnvironmentIntroductionSources of MicroplasticsPrimary MicroplasticsSecondary MicroplasticsMicroplastics Sampling and AbundanceSampling TechniquesBeach CombingSediment SamplingMarine TrawlsMarine Observational SurveysBiological SamplingSpatial and Temporal Variation of MicroplasticsFate of Microplastics and Nanoplastics in the EnvironmentTracking the “Missing” PlasticNanofragmentationBiofoulingMarine IngestionInteraction of Chemical Pollutants with MicroplasticsThe Way ForwardReferences: Marine Pollution: The Problem of Microplastics: Impacts of Macro- and Microplastics on Macrozoobenthos Abundance in the Intertidal ZoneIntroductionMaterials and MethodsStudy SiteMethod of Macroplastic SurveyMethod of Microplastic SurveySampling of MacrozoobenthosData AnalysisResults and DiscussionsMacroplasticsMicroplasticMacrozoobenthosConclusionsReferencesSection III: Plastics in Food: Microplastics and Nanoplastics in FoodIntroductionClassification of Fragmented PlasticsMicroplasticsNanoplasticsImpact of Micro- and Nanoplastics on Aquaculture and its ProductsSources of Human Consumption of Fragmented PlasticsMarine Source of ConsumptionNon-Marine Source of ConsumptionInhalation Exposure to Fragmented PlasticsUptake and Translocation of Fragmented PlasticsUptake in Respiratory Tract by EndocytosisUptake in Gastrointestinal Tract by EndocytosisUptake by the Persorption MethodFragmented Plastics in Food and Food PackagingHealth Hazards Caused by Fragmented PlasticsToxicological Pathways of Fragmented PlasticsInflammatory and Immune Response by Fragmented PlasticsEffect on the Airway and Gastrointestinal TractEffect of Adsorbed and Endogenous Chemical PollutantsEffect on MicrobiomeCurrent Methods of Detection, Identification and Quantification of Micro- and Nanoplastics in Food and Other SamplesFiltration TechniqueFloatation or Sedimentation TechniqueMatrix Dissolution TechniqueOil ExtractionOptical Vibrational SpectroscopyThermal AnalysisFluorescent Tagging with Nile RedTime-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)Conclusion and Future ProspectiveReferencesSection IV: Sampling and Analysis: Sampling, Isolating and Digesting of MicroplasticsSamplingField-Collected OrganismsMicroplastic Losses during Field SamplingMicroplastic Accumulation during Field SamplingSample StorageLaboratory-Exposed OrganismsIsolating MicroplasticsDissectionDepurationDigestionNitric AcidOther AcidsAlkalisOxidizing AgentsSodium HypochloriteEnzymesEffect of TemperatureFiltering DigestantsDensity SeparationReferences: Sampling, Isolating and Identifying Microplastics Ingested by Fish and InvertebratesIntroductionMethodological ReviewSamplingField-Collected OrganismsLaboratory-Exposed OrganismsIsolating MicroplasticsDissectionDepurationDigestionDensity SeparationMicroplastic IdentificationVisual IdentificationPolymer VerificationContaminationContamination during Field SamplingContamination during Sample Processing and AnalysisData AnalysisDiscussionControlling Sampling BiasEective Plastic IsolationPolymer VerificationMitigating ContaminationData AnalysisRecommendations for Future WorkConcluding RemarksReferencesSection V: Microplastics and POPs: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs): A Real Threat to the EnvironmentIntroductionSources and Persistence of POPsCurrent Scenario of POPsPolychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)Bisphenol A (BPA)Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)Health and Environmental Effects of POPsFuture ProspectsReferences: Marine Litter Plastics and Microplastics and Their Toxic Chemicals Components: The Need for Urgent Preventive MeasuresBackground—Situation on Plastic and Related Chemical Contamination and ImpactsPlastics in the Ocean: Sources, Volumes, TrendsChemicals (POPs and EDCs) in Marine Litter Plastics: Fate in the Marine EnvironmentPotential Impacts on Marine BiodiversityPotential Impacts from Marine Plastics on Human HealthPotential Impacts on Food Safety and Availability and Economic ActivityConclusions—Actions Needed and Potential Support by Chemical and Waste ConventionUrgent Measures Needed on Production and Consumption of Plastics and Waste ManagementPotential Measures Suggested in the Framework of the Stockholm and Basel Conventions to Address Marine Litter; Contribution from the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs.)Contribution from the Basel Convention on Hazardous WastesFuture Activities to Address Marine LitterReferencesSection VI: Microplastics in Freshwater: Microplastics in FreshwaterPlastics and Microplastics: A Historical OverviewPlasticsMicroplastics: The Evolution of Plastic PollutionSources of Plastics and Microplastics into the Freshwater EnvironmentOccurrence in Freshwater SystemsFate and Transport in Freshwater SystemsTransport of MPsEnvironmental Persistence and DegradationInteraction with Other CompoundsFactors Influencing Adsorption ProcessEffects of Plastics and Microplastics on Freshwater EcosystemsIngestion of MPs and its Biological ImpactChemical EffectsBiofilm-Related ImpactEffect of BiofilmBiological Effects of Sub-Micrometer PlasticsFreshwater Microplastics: Challenges for Regulation and ManagementConclusionReferences: Microplastics in Freshwater Systems: A Review on Its Accumulation and Effects on FishesIntroductionMicroplastics Overview: Types and SourcesMicroplasticsMethods of Ingestion of MPs by FishesData AnalysisEffects of Microplastics on FishesRecent Global Actions on MPsConclusionsReferencesIndex

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