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Polyurethanes science, technology, markets, and trends

Polyurethane Building BlocksPOLYOLSPolyether PolyolsBuilding Blocks Polymerization of Alkoxides to Polyethers Polyester PolyolsPolyester Polyol Building Blocks Preparation of Polyester Polyols Aliphatic Polyester Polyols Aromatic Polyester Polyols Other PolyolsPolycarbonate Polyols Polyacrylate PolyolsFilled PolyolsCopolymer Polyols PHD PolyolsPIPA Polyols Seed Oil-Derived PolyolsPreparation of Seed Oil-Derived Polyols PrepolymersISOCYANATESTDIConventional Production of TDI Nonphosgene Routes to TDI Diphenylmethane Diisocyanates (MDI)Production of MDI Aliphatic IsocyanatesProduction of Aliphatic IsocyanatesUse of Aliphatic Isocyanates CHAIN EXTENDERSIntroductionMechanism and catalysis of urethane formationReactions of isocyanates with active hydrogen compoundsUrea FormationAllophanate FormationFormation of BiuretsFormation of IJretidione (isocyanate dimer)Formation of carbodiimideFormation of uretonimineFormation of AmidesTheoretical concepts and techniques in polyurethane scienceFORMATION OF POLYURETHANE STRUCTUREPROPERTIES OF POLYURETHANESModels and Calculations for Polymer ModulusModels for elastomer stress strain propertiesFactors that Affect Polyurethane Stress-Strain Behavior Calculating Foam Properties The Polyurethane Glass Transition TemperatureAnalytical characterization of polyurethanesANALYSIS OF REAGENTS FOR MAKING POLYURETHANESAnalysis of PolyolsHydroxyl Number CPR Analysis of IsocyanatesAnalysis of pMDI INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS OF POLYURETHANESMicroscopyOptical Microscopy SEMTEMAFMIR SpectrometryX-ray AnalysesWide-Angle X-ray Scattering SAXS MECHANICAL ANALYSISTensile, Tear, and Elongation TestingDMANUCLEAR MAGNETIC SPECTROSCOPYPolyurethane flexible foams chemistry and fabricationMAKING POLYURETHANE FOAMSSlabstock FoamsMolded FoamsFOAM PROCESSESSurfactancy and Catalysis CatalysisSurfactancyFLEXIBLE FOAM FORMULATION AND STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPSScreening TestsFoam Formulation and Structure-Property RelationshipsPolyurethane flexible foams: manufacture, applications, markets, and trendsAPPLICATIONSFurnitureMattresses and BeddingTransportationThe Molded Foam MarketTRENDS IN MOLDED FOAM TECHNOLOGY AND MARKETSPolyurethane rigid foams: manufacture, applications, markets, and trendsREGIONAL MARKET DYNAMICSAPPLICATIONSConstruction FoamsPolyisocyanurate Foams Spray, Poured, and Froth Foams Rigid Construction Foam Market SegmentsAppliance FoamsBLOWING AGENTS AND INSULATION FUNDAMENTALS Blowing AgentsBlowing Agent Phase-Out ScheduleINSULATION FUNDAMENTALSTRENDS IN RIGID FOAMS TECHNOLOGYPolyurethane elastomers : manufacture, applications, markets, and trendsREGIONAL MARKET DYNAMICSAPPLICATIONSFootwearTrends in Footwear Applications Nonfootwear Elastomer Applications and Methods of ManufactureCast Elastomers Thermoplastic Polyurethanes Reaction Injection Molding Elastomers PU Elastomer Fibers TRENDS IN PU ELASTOMERSPolyurethane adhesives and coatings: manufacture, applications, markets, and trendsADHESIVE AND COATING INDUSTRIES: SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCESADHESIVESAdhesive FormulationsOne-Part Adhesives Hotmelt AdhesivesWaterborne PU Adhesives Trends in PU AdhesivesCOATINGSPU Coating FormulationsTwo-part Solvent-Borne Coating Waterborne Coatings Waterborne Hybrids UV Cured Waterborne Dispersions for Coatings PU Powder Coatings Trends in PU CoatingsSpecial topics: medical uses of polyurethaneMARKETS AND PARTICIPANTSTECHNOLOGY CathetersWound DressingsBioabsorbable PolyurethanesHydrogelsGloves and CondomsSpecial topic: nonisocyanate routes to polyurethanesGOVERNMENTAL REGULATION OF ISOCYANATESNONIS OCYANATE ROUTES TO POLYURETHANESReactions of Polycyclic Carbonates with PolyaminesDirect Transformations of Amines to UrethanesReactions of PolycarbamatesConversion of Hydroxamic Acids to PolyurethaneConversion of Hydroxylamines to Polyurethanes