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Planting Parliaments in Eurasia, 1850–1950: Concepts, Practices, and Mythologies

Duma, yuan, and beyond Conceptualizing parliaments and parliamentarism in and after the Russian and Qing EmpiresConcepts in the Russian imperial contextConcepts in the Qing imperial contextImperial modernizationsPostiinperial settlementsConclusionBibliographyMontesquieu vs. Bagehot Two visions of parliamentarism in JapanIntroduction: Heisei democracy and the 1955 SystemHistorical premisesThe awareness of “Japan”Kanto and KinriGogi and kogiThe Montesquieu momentThe Bagehot momentFederalism and unicameralismNotesPublic opinion under imperial benevolence Japanese “national essence” leader Torio Koyata’s anti-liberal parliamentarianism in the Genro-in and the House of Lords1From militarism to “public opinion”-based parliamentarianism“Public opinion” and the impact of the public sphereParliamentarianism as facilitating the natural order of the unity of the ethical state and societyEgalitarian communalism and the agency of moral autonomyThe egalitarianism of ethnic nationalismParty politics and the role of the public-minded exemplary gentlemanConclusionNotesBibliographyThe assembly of the land (zemskii sobor) Historiographies and mythologies of a Russian “parliament”1HistoriographiesAutocratic mythologyDemocratic mythologyConclusionNotesBibliographyThe 22 Frimaire of Yuan Shikai Privy councils in the constitutional architectures of Japan and China, 1887-1917Japan: “The Cabinet executes, the Conseil d’État deliberates”Qing Empire: An “Academy of Worthies” as “retirement home”?Republic of China: the Consejo de Estado and the “fortune of the Republic of China“ConclusionNotesA rada for the empire Inventing the tradition of Cossack self-governance during the 1905 Revolution1The Cossack landMetropolitan Russia encounters the CossacksThe tradition restoredMapping the HostThe Tsai ’s loyal CossacksA Cossack parliament?How was it possible?ConclusionNotesBibliographyOttoman parliamentary procedure in the Chamber of Deputies (Meclis-i Mebusan) and the Great National Assembly of Turkey (Tilrkiye Bilyilk Millet Meclisi), 1876-1923Historical context: the Tanzimat periodThe Constitution of 1876The 1908 RevolutionThe Second Constitutional PeriodThe constitutional revision of 1909Adaptation of the internal regulationsRules for plenary sessionsCommissions and branchesNotesPrimary Sources:Sources Online:Nominal democracy in Stalinism The Soviet Constitution of 19361Lenin’s and Stalin’s views of democracy and socialismDiscourse of democracy in the mid-1950sWhy did the Constitution turn out to be a sham?Nominal Soviet institutionsThe form and content dichotomyLaw and practiceElectionsConclusionNotesBibliographyThe preparations for the first Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference and the quest for legitimacyChanging visions of legitimate rule in the republican periodLegitimizing Communist ruleInviting the protagonists and setting the stageDelegations in the CPPCCThe preparatory committee of the consultative conferenceConclusionNotesBibliography

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