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Rigid Construction Foam Market Segments

Reliable data on the segment volumes are difficult to obtain with a wide range of values available in market surveys. All surveys find that the majority of polyurethane rigid foams in the construction market are isocyanurate with volume percentage ranging from approximately 50 to 75%. Available data are incomplete, but a rough average is presented in Figure 8.18, showing historical context and consistency over time and the role of geography on application preferences.

The construction rigid foam market is primarily segmented on the structural part being insulated. This segmentation breaks into roofing, walls, tanks and pipes, refrigerated buildings, and metal or fiberglass doors. The breakdown in utilization is provided in Figure 8.19. While the details of this distribution change slightly over time, the percentage breakdown given in the figure has been relatively stable for 20 years. Door insulation is well under 1% of the total rigid foam usage and is neglected in this figure to simplify the representation

TABLE 8.5 Formulations and properties for three pour-in-place applications

Formulations and properties for three pour-in-place applications

Global segmentation of rigid construction foams (a) globally in 2002 and (b) the United States in 2012. Geographical differences may reflect capital investment avoid┬Čance in spray systems in some geographies.

FIGURE 8.18 Global segmentation of rigid construction foams (a) globally in 2002 and (b) the United States in 2012. Geographical differences may reflect capital investment avoidance in spray systems in some geographies.

Segmentation of the polyurethane rigid foams for construction market by volume consumed in 2012.

FIGURE 8.19 Segmentation of the polyurethane rigid foams for construction market by volume consumed in 2012.

With roofing and wall insulation representing virtually all of the construction market for polyurethane rigid foams, the regulatory standards for performance are critical to successful commercial positioning. Table 8.6 is a list of relevant tests for determining the suitability, performance, and risk associated with insulation systems such as polyisocyanurate systems. Individual states and countries may require

TABLE 8.6 List of standard tests and descriptions relevant to the polyurethane rigid foam construction applications

Test

Standard description

ASTM C1289-13

Standard specification for faced rigid polyisocyanurate thermal insulation board including general industry requirements for materials and performance. Only for faced boards

ASTM C591-12

Standard specification for unfaced preformed rigid cellular

polyisocyanurate thermal insulation including general requirements, specifications, and dimensions for unfaced boards only.

ASTM C1303-12

Standard test method for predicting long-term thermal resistance of closed-cell foam insulation. Only applicable to unfaced or permeably faced insulation. Uses accelerated aging conditions.

ASTM E1730-09

Standard specification for rigid foam for use in structural sandwich panel cores. Structural testing of composite structural insulation panels including impact, flame resistance, thermal conductivity, compressive, tensile, and shear strength.

ASTM E84-13

Standard test method for surface burning characteristics of building materials. Determines the relative flame spread and smoke density generation produced. Uses long (24ft) and wide (20in.) specimens.

ASTM E662-13

Standard test method for specific optical density of smoke generated by solid materials. Quantification of the attenuation of a light beam by smoke in a closed chamber.

ASTM E1465-08

Standard practice for radon control option for the design and construction of new low-rise residential buildings. Primarily, a piping system for detouring radon from penetrating the structure. Piping may need insulation and radon build-up made more severe by improved insulation.

ASTM E1678-10

Standard test method for measuring smoke toxicity for use in fire hazard analysis. Collection and analysis of smoke followed by animal testing for LCgo for exposure to smoke.

ASTM E906

Also called "the OSU burn test" standard methods for heat and visible smoke release rates for materials and products

DIN 4102-1 B3

German standard fire test to building materials (sic) standard defines fire behavior classes and specifies requirements and test methods for each class. Urethane based materials generally fall under B3 classification suggesting intrinsic flammability

ISO 5660

International Organization for Standardization. Reaction-to-fire test heat release, smoke production, and mass loss rate (cone calorimeter method). Measure time to ignition and heat release rate based on oxygen consumption in a calibrated gas flow.

UL-94

Underwriters Laboratory test for plastics flammability using small specimens (5 in. x 0.5 in.) measures tendency of a material to self-extinguish or spread a flame one ignition occurs.

ASHRAE 90.1

Energy standard for building except low-rise residential buildings. States apply the standards differently over the range of building purposes.

BS EN 13823

British standard for materials of construction, relatively small scale, measures heat output, and smoke generation in a corner geometry.

Percentage consumption of polyurethane rigid foams for appliance insulation.

FIGURE 8.20 Percentage consumption of polyurethane rigid foams for appliance insulation.

additional testing or performance to meet local requirements. Along with standard testing methods issued by national organizations such as ASTM, and European and Asian testing organizations, there also exist trade organizations such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) promulgating standards. Aside from characterization of the foam structure, their standards apply to the overall performance of the structure that the foam insulation must be a part of meeting targets [37].

 
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