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Accountability and Culture of School Teachers and Principals: An Eight-country Comparative Study

AcknowledgmentsPreoccupation with educational accountability as a panacea for educational illsDevelopment of accountability theoryTeachers’ and principals’ accountability: theoretical backgroundConceptualizing accountabilityAccountability: definition and foundationsAccountability as a subjective conceptAccountability dimensions: external and internalAccountability audiencesAccountability measurementAccountability and cultural values Cultural values and organizational behaviorCultural values: individualism and collectivismAccountability and its relationship to individualism and collectivismAccountability and country-level individualism and collectivismAccountability and organizational supportStudy methodsData collectionStudy measuresExternal and internal accountabilityIndividualism and collectivismAnalytical approachAppendix 3.1: handling of missing dataAppendix 3.2: the questionnaires used in the study (English version)Appendix 3.3: psychometric and questionnaire position of study variablesAppendix 3.4: check on leveled structure teacher dataAppendix 3.5a: models for teachers’ external accountabilityAppendix 3.5b: models for teachers’ internal accountabilityAppendix 3.6a: models for teachers’ accountability toward parentsAppendix 3.6b: models for teachers’ accountability toward school managementStudy findingsAccountability distributionCultural values distributionOrganizational support distributionPrediction of teachers’ and principals’ external and internal accountabilityPrediction of accountability: summaryDiscussion of study findingsThe two dimensions of accountability: external and internalAccountability audiences: parents and school managementEffect of principals’ accountability on teachers’ accountabilityPredicting accountability by personal individualism and collectivismAccountability at a country levelOrganizational support as a predictor of accountability dispositionConcluding thoughtsEducators’ accountability versus school accountabilityFocus on internal accountabilityCultural values and accountability – theoretical and practical implicationsThe contingent role of the accountability audienceTeam accountability: a future research direction

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