Low-Carbon Energy System Using Local Resources
Toward the realization of an LCS in Asia, the low carbonization in energy demand and supply has a vital role. Energy-saving activities and the application of renewables such as solar photovoltaic (PV) and wind power are keys to a reduction of GHGs. The use of renewable energies will also improve energy access, eliminate energy poverty, and establish sustainable local energy systems.
In a low-carbon Asia, it will also be essential to make fossil fuel-based energy supply systems more efficient and to facilitate coordination between fossil fuels and renewable energy, thereby improving energy security. Similarly, creation of a “smart” energy system that integrates the energy demand side will be vital. To establish these systems, governments have to develop a mediumto long-term energy policy that provides a clear direction domestically and globally on the key goals and related targets to be achieved. Achieving these goals and targets would, in the short to medium term, need institutional interventions and policy incentives that enable the introduction of renewables and energy-efficient appliances and facilities. In the long run, i.e., beyond 2030, the market pull in the wake of declining costs would deploy these technologies even without government incentives. In some countries, where the electricity access is limited by the short supply of infrastructure, the governments would have an important role to support the infrastructure supply.
The industrial sector in Asia experiences strong competition from outside the region as well as within the region. The technological innovations such as for improving grid control systems that can integrate and use diverse sources of electric power, as well as smart grids and demand responses, are important areas to enhance competitiveness of industries. Innovative industries have new market opportunities to innovate, develop, and supply solutions which can support the consumers showing preference for low-carbon or green energy sources such as solar PV systems or preferences for energy-efficient appliances or insulation technologies; the supply-side solution responds by integrating renewable energy and energyefficient technologies to match the consumer preferences. International cooperation will also be essential. The establishment of an Asia grid network among Asian countries should be pursued using international financing mechanisms, and uniform standards should also be promoted in individual countries, creating an infrastructure for cross-border electric power interchanges. It will also be important to share best practices from the efforts in each country to encourage the use of renewable energies and to establish local weather information-gathering systems and share knowledge about the ways to use such systems.