Sustainable Forestry Management
Deforestation reduces forest carbon stocks, creates soil disturbances, and increases CO2 emissions. It causes degradation of remaining forestland and lower wood productivity and inflicts severe damage on biomass growth. It is therefore important to reduce the impact of logging and improve the maintenance of forested areas so as to halt forest degradation, thereby reducing GHG emissions and enhancing the function of forests as a carbon sink.
Planting of trees on land that was not previously forestland is called afforestation, while planting of trees on land where a forest existed is referred to as reforestation. The Kyoto Protocol treats both afforestation and reforestation as methods of reducing emissions under the Clean Development Mechanism. Carbon is absorbed by trees through photosynthesis and stocked in forests and soils.
In Indonesia, peat fire and peat decomposition are major emission sources in the land use sector. Both fire management and peatland management are necessary to mitigate these emissions, in conjunction with the suppression of illegal logging, protection of ecosystems, and reduction of poverty.
To manage fires and peatland, the government is expected to play an important role by implementing land use zoning for forest protection, stopping illegal logging and unplanned land clearance, supporting the economic independence of local people by enhancing their level of education, and introducing licenses for tree planting and land clearance to encourage sustainable land use by landowners.
The private sector is expected to conduct logging and planting operations sustainably on properly licensed land, appropriately manage fires lit for land clearance, acquire forestry management skills for appropriate logging and forestation, autonomously maintain land after logging for forest regeneration, and abstain from illegal logging and consumption of illegally logged timber.
Citizens should be encouraged to understand the importance and multiple functions of forest ecosystems and to manage forests at the local level. They can contribute to reduced emissions by selecting products made of certificated wood as much as possible and actively participating in programs implemented by the government, NPOs, international society, etc. In the area of international cooperation, it is important to establish international systems to certificate sustainable management of biofuel and wood production and to regulate the importation of products that do not meet the criteria. Additionally, promotion of international cooperation for forestation and capacity development in timber-producing areas is required.