Selection of Priority Areas and Measures to Reduce Emissions of Greenhouse Gases
Selection of Priority Areas
Identifying priority areas for policy implementation should be based on the criteria that the externalities have been taken into account. The implementation costs criterion represents the economic efficiency of emission reduction countermeasures, usually expressed as the monetary value per unit of CO2 avoided when implementing these measures. The assumption is that the lower the cost is, the more attractive the options are. Conversely, the choices for emission reduction measures have higher costs that will not be a priority in the early stages and can be implemented later.
The priority policies should have the ability to meet the emission reduction targets of the country. This indicator reflects the level of impact and the ability to contribute to GHG reduction targets of selected sector emission reduction measures. It is usually based on the percentage of CO2 emissions from the sector compared with the total amount of the CO2 cut off. The sectors that have higher potential emissions will be placed at greater priority.
The applicability of the policies is an important criterion to prioritize the measures. This reflects the necessity for a change in legislation or institutional systems to enable the successfully implementation of emission reduction measures. Typically, measures that require little change or effects on other policies when being implemented are often easier to implement and therefore will prevail.
There are several factors affecting the applicability and implementation of GHG emission reduction measures. If there are many similar implementing measures that have been done before, it will be better with this experience. Reducing the number of decision makers who have a key role in the implementation of measures to reduce emissions in priority areas would help to implement the measures quickly and effectively. The complexity of the preparatory activities will help to shorten the timeframe for implementation. The level of diversity of the groups that the reduction measures will be directed at should be as little as possible. As usual, a greater number of targeted groups will require more work on related policies.
The reduction measures should have the ability to combine with activities to improve the quality of life. This reflects the extent to which the measures will supplement and support policies and other measures aimed at improving the quality of life of people, such as poverty reduction and energy security. To a certain extent, this reflects the priority that reducing emissions will not only limit the amount of CO2 emissions but also contribute to reducing the burden of negative effects on people's health or the ecosystem.
Preferable measures will help to create job opportunities. This is the social impact of the measures. It is mainly based on indicators of jobs directly created to implement measures in priority areas to reduce emissions.
Another important factor to be considered in determining the priority areas for reducing GHG emissions is that they need to be in compliance with the priorities of the country's development policies. Determining priority areas for GHG emission reduction therefore is weighted in accordance with the development goals of the country. The priorities for development will be essential in determining areas for reducing GHG emissions.