Implementation of a Climate Change Mechanism in Thailand
In 2012, the first study by Thailand Greenhouse Gas Management Organisation (TGO) showed that Thailand has a high potential for GHG emissions reduction, via both domestically and internationally supported NAMAs, to the tune of about 23– 73 million tonnes CO2 per year by 2020 or approximately 7–20 % of the total GHG emissions for 2020. The calculated abatement costs of NAMAs vary in the range 0– 1000 USD/t-CO2. However, these CO2 reduction actions are voluntarily for Thailand. In order to convey its intent as regards being a main supporter for climate change reduction and GHG mitigation in SE Asia, Thailand has to be ready for the coming strategies in the proposed NAMAs. The TGO working group and the Ministry of Energy found that the national sectoral approach actions are composed of:
1. Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP) 2012–2021 (updated in May 2012)
2. Energy efficiency measures in industrial and building sectors, according to the act on energy conservation passed by the Ministry of Energy
3. Biofuel promotion in the transport sector under AEDP
4. The mass transit system, termed 'environmental sustainable transport system', by the Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning (OTP)
Thailand's mitigation pledge to UNFCCC has been prepared on the basis of these measures since 2012. In addition, co-benefits of NAMAs are also assessed, and they reveal positive aspects of GHG mitigation under the NAMA framework. The MRV process of these NAMAs requires cooperation among the related ministries.
Success of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) Projects in Thailand
As of January 2012, TGO reported that the number of CDM projects issuing CERs had increased to ten, with a total CO2 reduction of 1.05 Mt-CO2. However, as developing CDM projects up to the issuance of CERs takes much time, it is recommended that Thailand's NAMA process be made more flexible and simplified to reduce the overall processing time and that other developing CDM projects be switched to register in the NAMA category. It is anticipated that Thailand will fasttrack projects under NAMAs. As of December 2014, 222 Thai CDM projects had received the letter of approval (LoA), accounting for a cumulative GHG reduction of 12.72 Mt-CO2. Of these, however, only 151 projects had been registered by the CDM Executive Board (CDM-EB) (with a cumulative GHG reduction of 7.25 Mt-CO2), and only 43 projects had received issuance of certified emission reductions (CERs) (equal to 6.92 Mt-CO2).