Thailand's GHG Emissions
In 2000 Thailand emitted about 229 Mt-CO2eq, most of which is due to the power sector. It is followed by transport and industry sectors, each accounting for 44.4 and
30.3 Mt-CO2, respectively. Figure 6.4 shows sectoral shares of CO2 emissions in 2000 and in particular shows that the energy sector is the biggest CO2 emitter, accounted for 69.57 % of the total. The share of CO2 emissions in the agricultural
Fig. 6.2 Total final energy consumption by fuel type in 2011
Fig. 6.3 Global fuel share of TPES for 1973, 2011
sector is about 22.64 %. The forestry sector and carbon sequestration result in CO2 absorption of 3.44 %.
The trend in Thailand's GHG emissions shows an increase—in 1992 total CO2 emissions stood at about 100,033 kt-CO2, which then increased to 194,853 in 2009, and accounted for an average increase rate of 2.33 % per annum. The biggest CO2emitting sector is the power sector, which was responsible for 41,838 kt-CO2 in 1992, and 81,797 in 2009, and accounted for an average increase rate of 5.14 % per annum. This is followed by the industrial, transport and building sectors, which accounted for average annual increase rates of 1.66 %, 2.00 % and 2.98 %, respectively.
In 2011, CO2 emissions of 206.4 Mt-CO2 were recorded, a contribution of only 0.66 % to the global figure. However, CO2 increased by 202.4 % over the last two
Fig. 6.4 Breakdown of CO2 emissions by sector in 2000 (Source: Thailand's Second National Communication, ONEP 2011)
decades. Of the total, 41.8 % came from the power sector in 2011, and second was transport at 28.52 % (58.87 Mt-CO2). However, although the emission quantity is still comparatively small, emissions from residential and commercial sectors have the highest average annual growth rate of 5.35 %, followed by the industry and the power sectors of 4.47 % and 3.89 %, respectively. A fuel-wise comparison of carbon emissions shows that by far oil is the largest emitter and was responsible for about half of CO2 emissions for 2011. Due to its high use in power generation, natural gas has also incurred considerable emissions (about one third of the total) followed by coal (about one fifth).
In the energy sector, the energy conversion processes in electricity power plants are the chief contributor to CO2 emissions, which are followed by combustion processes in industry and transportation. During 2002–2010, the corresponding CO2 emissions increased by 30.03 %, 18.78 % and 12.47 % in the power, industry and transport sectors, respectively. Therefore, it is recommended that related policy measures in GHG mitigation in the energy sector be focused on energy conversion processes and fossil fuel combustion processes in industry and transportation sectors. Thus, for Thailand's NAMA, the first study focused on power generation, industry and waste to energy activities.
Other Air Pollutant Emissions
NOx emissions in 2011 stood at 971 kt-CO2 and during the period 1994–2011 increased by about 83 %. The transport sector is the major NOx emitter in Thailand and in 2011 was responsible for 307 kt-CO2, an approx. 31.6 % share of the total. However, power, manufacturing and others (agricultural, construction and mining) also emitted considerable amounts.
With regard to SOx emissions, the figures dropped considerably during the period 1994–2011, from 1326 kt in 1994 to 552 kt in 2011. Since the power sector is responsible for the highest SOx emissions, desulphurisation retrofits in power plants have decreased SOx emissions drastically. However, in 2011 the power sector emitted the highest amount at about 55 %. More than 96 % of SOx emissions in 2011 were produced from the power and manufacturing sectors.