Thailand's 20-Year Energy Efficiency Development Plan
In 2011, the Ministry of Energy announced the 20-Year Energy Efficiency Development Plan (EEDP). This plan aims at cutting off overall energy intensity and total final energy consumption by 25 % and 20 %, respectively, in 2030. The main sectors targeted are transport and industry (EPPO 2011). EEDP will provide both mandatory actions and voluntary support to promote energy efficiency. The mandatory actions will comply with the 1992 Energy Conservation Act (ENCON Act) and the revised 2007 ENCON Act and minimum energy performance standards including energy labelling. The main form of support to promote energy efficiency is financial, such as incentives for measures proven to enable energy savings, incentives to promote the use and production of energy devices that comply with minimum energy performance standards and incentives to promote high energy efficiency vehicles.
Thailand Power Development Plan (PDP) 2010–2030
The Thailand Power Development Plan is the government-approved development pathway of the power sector for the period 2010–2030. Two objectives have been accomplished by developing this plan. First, the future peak power demand and the total energy demand have been forecasted. Second, a roadmap for power generation expansion to meet forecasted demand has been developed. The PDP 2010 plan has been revised several times for a variety of reasons and changes in national energy circumstances. The first revision was made since the peak demand in 2010 was significantly higher than as forecasted and capacity addition of independent power producers (IPPs) was lower than planned due to delays in plant construction. Then, due to lowered public acceptance for nuclear power as a result of Japan's Fukushima incident, a second revision was prepared. The third and latest revisions were prepared based on three key issues: (1) to adopt forecasted power demand results, (2) to include the guidelines given in the revised Alternative Energy Development Plan (AEDP 2012–2021) and (3) to place more emphasis on energy security.
In PDP2010 Revision 3, to forecast power demand, energy saving programmes and energy efficiency promotions have been considered at a success rate of only 20 %, in accordance with MoEN's (Ministry of Energy) 20-Year Energy Efficiency Development Plan 2011–2030. According to the forecasts, the peak generation requirement in 2030 is 52,256 MW, and net energy generation requirement is 346,767 GWh. These figures have been set as the baseline for preparation of the PDP. In addition, the following features can be highlighted. One of the considerations taken into account was keeping the reserve margin at the level of 20 % higher than the peak demand due to risk in the natural gas supply sources in western Thailand. In addition, diversification of fuel has also been considered to reduce the natural gas dependency. Another consideration was to maintain the share of nuclear power below the 5 % margin. In the plan, a capacity of 2000 MW has been planned for nuclear in 2026. Increasing the share of renewable power generation by 5 % from the level proposed in its PDP Revision 2 has been taken into account. In the PDP 2010 plan, adding 14,580 MW of renewable power capacity has been planned for the system, 9481 MW coming from domestic sources and 5099 MW via purchases from neighbouring countries. Promotion of cogeneration and increasing the power purchased from it were another assumption made, with cogeneration accounting for 6476 MW of capacity addition. In addition, 25,451 MW from combined cycle power plants and 8623 MW thermal power capacity, including 4400 MW of coal, have been added for the period 2012–2030. Altogether, 55,130 MW of new capacity has been added for 2012–2030, whilst 16,839 MW of capacity has been retired. At the end of 2030, net operating capacity stands at 70,686 MW for 2030.
Environmental Sustainable Transport System
The 'environmental sustainable transport system' was proposed and developed by the Office of Transport and Traffic Policy and Planning (OTP). The actions, which mainly involve a modal shift, fuel economy improvement and sustainable mass transit system, started in 2012. However, due to the long lead time for construction, this sustainable system is not due to be fully operational until after 2020.