Layout of Roadmap to Thailand NAMA 2020
To achieve a GHG reduction of 7–20 %, as Thailand communicated in its mitigation pledge to UNFCCC in Lima COP20, the Office of Natural Resources and Environmental Planning and Policy (ONEP) under MONRE proposed a roadmap to Thailand's 2020 NAMAs (see Fig. 6.9). This roadmap includes both domestically and internationally supported NAMAs (ONEP 2014). If GHG countermeasures implemented under Thailand's NAMA roadmap during 2014–2020 successfully clear the MRV processes, the higher GHG mitigation target of 20 % in 2020 will be achieved easily. However, the NAMAs still need support in terms of capacity building, financing, technology transfer and removal of EE barriers (Asayama and Limmeechokchai 2014).
Fig. 6.9 Roadmap to Thailand's 2020 NAMAs
MRV of Thailand's NAMAs: The Road to Success
Thailand has prepared a NAMA roadmap in relation to the estimated GHG emission reductions. The MRV process under Thailand's NAMA actions complies with the UNFCCC process; thus, it will not cause more barriers to the NAMA MRV or the procedure according to the mitigation actions for both project-based NAMAs and policy-based NAMAs. Before pushing ahead with the projects, meetings with stakeholders must be held. These meetings need to be arranged by the agencies responsible for the MRV process, and MRV guidelines for each project need setting. This can be done by the working group and coordinator from the department of energy and climate change and by the working groups on GHG mitigation in the energy sector from the Ministry of Energy, together with the working groups from the Ministry of Energy and MONRE.
It was found that strategies for reduced GHG emissions from the use of renewable energy for electricity generation, increased energy efficiency in buildings and energy savings in industries are high priorities under Thailand's NAMA actions. However, for the NAMA actions to be achieved successfully, the organisations and the MRV process have to be developed at the same time as the NAMA action.
For the RE NAMA actions, the MRV process requires cooperation among ONEP, TGO, Ministry of Energy (Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency), Energy Regulatory Commission (ERC) and Energy Policy and Planning Office (EPPO) (see Fig. 6.10a, b). These agencies will be responsible for NAMA MRV so that NAMA actions will be achieved to meet the targets of the AEDP plan and the targets for GHG emission reductions following the NAMA actions.
Fig. 6.10 MRV processes of domestically supported NAMAs (a) MRV of RE power generation
(b) MRV of substitution of biofuels for fossils (c) MRV of energy efficiency in buildings and industries
Fig. 6.11 Success of MRV process for domestically supported NAMAs
For the EE NAMAs, the actions are related to energy efficiency in industry and buildings. The MRV process requires cooperation among TGO and the Ministry of Energy (Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency) (see Fig. 6.10c). These agencies will be responsible for NAMA MRV so that NAMA actions will accomplish the targets in energy conservation in industry and buildings and the targets for GHG emission reductions.
Finally, in October 2014, the ONEP revealed roadmap to Thailand's NAMAs. It shows that the domestic MRV processes of both RE and EE NAMAs already achieve a CO2 reduction of 7 % (Fig. 6.11).