Structure of GHG Emission Mitigation Options
The LCSBP-IM2025 provides a sustainable green growth road map with 12 policy actions to move Iskandar Malaysia towards achieving its vision of a 'strong, sustainable metropolis of international standing' by 2025. The integration of two competing goals – 'strong' and 'sustainable' – in a single development vision poses great challenges to IM's growth policies and development planning. On the one hand, the urban region needs to develop a prosperous, resilient, robust and globally competitive economy (the 'strong' dimension); on the other (the 'sustainability' dimension), it needs to nurture a healthy and knowledgeable society that subscribes to low-carbon living and at the same time develop a total urban-regional environment that enables rapid economic growth but reduces growth's energy demand and carbon emission intensity. This calls for a holistic and integrated approach, involving policies and strategies on Green Economy, Green Community and Green Environment (Fig. 7.9), to decouple rapid growth from carbon emission in IM. Meeting this challenge has been the primary goal and underlying philosophy of the LCSBPIM2025. Essentially, the Blueprint comprises two principal components:
Fig. 7.9 Development of framework and scoping for LCSBP-IM2025 based on Iskandar Malaysia's development vision
Fig. 7.10 'Work breakdown structure' (WBS) approach (Source: UTM-Low Carbon Asia Research Centre 2013a, p. 0–7)
1. Narrative on growth scenarios, policies, measures and programmes to achieve a minimum targeted 50 % reduction in carbon emission intensity by 2025 based on the 2005 level. Under this first component, 12 LCS Actions have been identified under the three themes: Green Economy, Green Community and Green Environment. To provide a clear framework for effective implementation of the policies, the 'work breakdown structure' (WBS) approach has been adopted where each of the 12 LCS Actions is collapsed into subactions and, in turn, into measures and detailed programmes (Fig. 7.10). A total of 281 LCS programmes have been identified for implementation in Iskandar Malaysia up to 2025 to meet
the GHG reduction target that has been set. For details of the 12 policy actions, subactions, measures and programmes (totalling some 400 policy items), readers are referred to the Full Report and Summary for Policymakers (SPM) of the Blueprint (UTM-Low Carbon Asia Research Centre 2013a, b).
2. Scenario-based modelling and projection of carbon emission reductions achievable using ExSS (see Sect. 7.3.2). With the implementation of the 281 LCS programmes identified in the Blueprint, a 58 % reduction in carbon emission intensity, from 319.33 tCO2eq/MYR1mil in 2005 to 133.66 tCO2eq/MYR1mil in 2025, has been projected for Iskandar Malaysia, which is higher than the 50 % reduction targeted at the outset.
GHG Emission Mitigation Options
As mentioned above, 12 mitigation options have been identified to lower carbon emissions of Iskandar Malaysia and transform the society of IM into a low carbon society. These have been organised under the three themes following the triple bottom line (TBL) of sustainable development, namely, Green Economy, Green Community and Green Environment. Collectively these 12 policy actions can potentially deliver a total of 12,758 ktCO2eq direct emission reduction in 2025, accounting for a 40 % emission cut back from 2025 BaU. Table 7.1 shows the CO2 reduction potential of each LCS Action. Three actions: Action 5 (Green Energy System and Renewable Energy), Action 6 (Low-Carbon Lifestyle) and Action 1 (Integrated Green Transportation) jointly contribute to 57 % of total emission reduction; policymakers should pay more attention to these three actions and highlight them as higher-priority countermeasures that would help IM to cut carbon emission significantly.