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Beyond Science and Policymaking: Implementing the LCSBP-IM2025

The LCSBP-IM2025 was prepared with its eventual implementation in mind from the outset. After its completion and launching at the UNFCCC's 18th Conference of the Parties (COP 18) in Doha, Qatar in November 2012 and its subsequent endorsement by the Prime Minister of Malaysia (who is also a Co-Chairman of IRDA) in December 2012 (Fig. 7.11), IRDA and the research team immediately looked into priority projects for implementation in Iskandar Malaysia for the 2013–2015 period. A series of intensive workshops were conducted between June and September 2013 and concluded in the formulation of the Iskandar Malaysia Actions for a Low Carbon Future (IRDA 2013), which outlines seven (7) specific Actionbased projects plus three (3) special area-based projects (see Sect. 7.6.2) selected from the 281 programmes in the LCSBP-IM2025 for immediate implementation.

Table 7.1 Twelve mitigation options to lower the carbon emissions of Iskandar Malaysia

Source: UTM-Low Carbon Asia Research Centre 2013a, p. 0–5

aContribution to GHG emission reduction from 2025 BaU to 2025 CM.

bActions 3, 7 and 12 do not have direct emission reduction, but their effect is included in other Actions

cSince contribution of Action 10 includes carbon sink by forest conservation and urban tree planting, the total contribution of the 12 Actions is greater than difference of the GHG emissions between 2025 BaU and 2025 CM

Fig. 7.11 Launching of the LCSBP-IM 2025 at COP 18 (November 2012) and the Blueprint's endorsement by the Prime Minister of Malaysia (December 2012)

7.5.1 Selection of Priority Projects

The ten projects have been prioritised for implementation based on their institutional readiness (e.g. continuation of or extension to existing initiatives), relatively higher CO2 reduction potential and lower implementation barriers, which include

Fig. 7.12 Selection of priority LCS projects for implementation in 2013–2015 based on their relatively higher emission reduction potential and lower implementation barriers (Source: UTM-Low Carbon Asia Research Centre 2013c)

aspects of costs, human capital, institutional and legislative framework, society readiness (public acceptance), private sector buy-in and technology availability. Conceptually, these projects, when plotted in a four-quadrant plot along the axes of emission reduction potential and implementation barriers (Fig. 7.12), fall within the centre-upper-left region of the plot.

Another fundamental criterion underlying the selection of the ten implementation projects is that they should collectively cut across evenly all three main themes– Green Economy, Green Community and Green Environment – and the 12 LCS Actions of the Blueprint. To that end, a 'Project versus LCS Action mapping' exercise has been carried out, which shows a well-distributed coverage of all three main themes and ten out of 12 Actions of the Blueprint by the ten projects (Fig. 7.13). Successful implementation of these projects will be highly essential as positive demonstrations to the local and business communities in IM that will potentially boost their confidence, acceptance, ownership and support of the other LCS programmes in the Blueprint.

7.5.2 Selected Projects for Implementation in IM (2013–2015)

This section provides a summary of the ten projects that have been selected out of the 281 LCS programmes in the LCSBP-IM2025 and shows how actions supported by science can be, and are being, used to enable and realise reduction in carbon emissions in IM. For details of each project, readers are advised to consult the Iskandar Malaysia Actions for a Low Carbon Future booklet (IRDA 2013) from which the following project summaries have been extracted. The ten projects may be divided into seven specific LCS Action-based projects and three special areabased projects, as follows:

Seven specific Action-based projects:

1. Integrated Green Transportation – Mobility Management System

2. Green Economy Guidelines

Fig. 7.13 Project versus LCS Action mapping exercise that shows even coverage across the Blueprint's three main themes and 12 Actions by the ten selected projects (Source: UTM-Low Carbon Asia Research Centre 2013c)

3. Eco-life Challenge Schools Project

4. Portal on Green Technology

5. Trees for Urban Parks

6. Responsible Tourism Development and Biodiversity Conservation

7. GAIA (Green Accord Initiative Award) Three special area-based projects:

8. Bukit Batu Eco-Community

9. Low Carbon Eco Village FELDA Taib Andak

10. Special Feature: Smart City – Nafas Baru Pasir Gudang – Green and Healthy City

1. Integrated Green Transportation – Mobility Management System

The Iskandar Malaysia Mobility Management System (IMMMS) promotes sustainable transport and manages the demand for car use by changing travellers' attitude and behaviour. MMS coordinates information, services and activities to optimise the effectiveness of urban transportation. It is an innovative approach in managing and delivering coordinated and inclusive transportation services to customers, including the elderly, people with different abilities and low-income population. It is an online platform accessible through computers and smart phones, connecting citizens to the various modes of travelling within Iskandar Malaysia.

Project components include route and schedule information; trip/journey planner and travel optimisation; current travel conditions, alerts and avoidance; real-time transit arrival information; user travel analysis and system analysis.

2. Green Economy Guidelines

The Green Economy Guidelines look into areas of procurement, operations and supply chain management for businesses in order to minimise their impacts on the environment. The guidelines call for the government to look into the prospect of developing, adapting and revising current policies to support green growth through tax breaks, reducing perverse incentives and promoting and rewarding good practices for going green. Once the guideline is fully adopted by the various sectors within IM by the end of 2015, it will help to enhance the region's economic growth in tandem with environmental protection and conservation, supported by a green workforce and informed communities which generate positive impacts towards achieving IM's vision as well as contributing to GHG emission reduction in the region.

3. Eco-life Challenge Schools Project

The Children's Eco-life Challenge project (ELC) is an eco-household accounting project designed for students. The project is recommended as a supplement to the existing formal curriculum as a form of contextual learning, promoting systemsthinking and encouraging students to apply knowledge and skills learnt to real-life context. Through ELC, students monitor their own behaviour pattern as well as their families' in moving towards a low carbon lifestyle. Aspects included in ELC are energy consumption, waste generation and management, travel choice, frugal consumption and use of renewable resources. In 2013, the first batch of 22 Iskandar Malaysia-based UNESCO Associated Schools Project Network (ASPnet) primary schools participated in the inaugural ELC competition; the champion school was sent on an educational trip to Kyoto. The number of participating schools increased to 80 in 2014, and all 198 primary schools in IM (with a student population of over 184,000) are expected to be included under the ELC project in 2015. The complete Eco-life Challenge module and lesson plan are scheduled for a 2015 roll-out in IM. Updates on the implementation of the ELC project can be found at sustainableiskandar.com.my.

4. Portal on Green Technology

The Green Portal is a website and online platform where local communities, the government, private businesses, developers, investors and the wider public can access information related to green technology and the natural environment in IM. The portal is a one-stop virtual centre providing the latest news and information on green technology and LCS related topics, strategies, policies and guidelines. The portal also serves as a platform for promoting green employment and facilitating networking of a 'carbon literate' workforce to meet the growing needs of local, national and international green industries, notably those located within IM. The portal contains both historical and recent information on the natural environment such as policies on spatial/land use, shoreline planning, energy and waste management which will improve the knowledge of viewers and industry practitioners in both green technology and natural environment. The Green Portal is hosted in IRDA's current IM website at iskandarmalaysia.com.my/.

5. Trees for Urban Parks

'Trees for Urban Parks' aims to increase green lungs in urban areas in IM; enhance places for people to visit, exercise, recreate and socialise; and create habitats for attracting birds and small animals back into urban settings. The project calls for the retention as well as reintroduction of endemic tree species in urban parks and urban forests in IM. Key strategies to that effect include effective enforcement of the Trees Preservation Order (TPO) under the Town and Country Planning Act, 1976 (Act 172), promoting and encouraging planting of endemic trees among developers and monitoring and annual reporting of endemic tree planting. To begin with, IRDA has carried out a fairly comprehensive inventory of tree and plant species that are endemic to Johor and particularly to IM. Currently proposed tree planting programmes cover Hutan Bandar MBJB (MBJB Urban Forest) and Taman Merdeka in the Johor Bahru City limits.

6. Responsible Tourism Development and Biodiversity Conservation

Responsible tourism and biodiversity conservation inherently bring about simultaneous economic, social and ecological benefits and as such are candidate priority projects for advancing IM's LCS goal. Defining characteristics of responsible tourism are environmental education, community-led projects and promotion of resilient local economy. Building on the success of the first and second Eco-tourism Summits in 2012 and 2013, IRDA successfully led local communities and villagers in Kampung Sungai Melayu to actively champion the conservation of local natural resources (e.g. mangrove forests, grounds of migratory birds) and involve in sustaining and improving their economic livelihood. Starting as an IRDA-led project focusing on birding, taking advantage of the September–March migratory bird season, the annual project has taken its own momentum. Local communities are beginning to take stronger responsibility and pride in their natural environment, viewing it more than just a source of livelihood. IRDA now looks into transmitting the success formula to other coastal communities in IM.

7. GAIA (Green Accord Initiative Award)

The Green Accord Initiative Award or GAIA recognises and awards worthy companies and businesses in Iskandar Malaysia that have pioneered green and low carbon principles in their operation. While most companies comply with required environmental regulations or social requirements, some companies have initiated to look beyond regulatory compliance. This effort includes working with local communities in sectors of health and well-being, alleviating poverty, conserving the environment, and reducing carbon footprints. In this initial phase, GAIA will be looking specifically at green building development and companies that have adopted efficient energy system and implemented renewable energy approaches.

GAIA will be awarded to worthy development projects and buildings that have met local and international codes on green buildings, especially building design, and the application of green technology in their construction. GAIA is a soft incentive that will be tied to local and international rating tools such as Malaysia's Green Building Initiative (GBI), Japan's CASBEE and Singapore's Green Mark as well as other known assessment tools (e.g. LEED and BREEAM) to evaluate and recognise green buildings in Iskandar Malaysia. Work towards developing GAIA assessment criteria began in 2013 with the assessment tool being finalised in 2014. Evaluation begins in 2015 and will be conducted through collaborations with industry players and in consultation with all relevant parties in IM.

8. Bukit Batu Eco-Community

The Bukit Batu Eco-Community project aims to demonstrate how village communities whose current economic base predominantly revolves around oil palm and rubber plantations can achieve higher-value economic development within a low carbon society framework. The project seeks to improve villagers' lifestyle and financial status in and around the Kulai District in a sustainable manner via local employment, entrepreneurship and business co-ownership. The development emphasises the adoption of appropriate green technologies and various LCSBPIM2025 recommendations to become a showcase model for other rural communities with rapidly urbanising contexts in IM. The initial phase of the proposed Eco-community of 1,214 hectares sits on a 4-ha site that is strategically located at the first exit of the North–South Expressway to IM, about 40 km northwest of Johor Bahru City. The first-phase development, funded via IRDA's Social Project Fund (SPF), comprises a business and marketing centre for local SMEs to market their products and services. Apart from yielding economic gains, the centre also provides various training, mindset change and social development programmes for the village communities. Environmentally, the centre will have the first rural green building that attempts to generate electricity from solar, wind and biomass sources; implement rainwater harvesting and promote 3R and green transportation.

9. Low Carbon Eco Village FELDA Taib Andak

Low Carbon Eco Village FELDA Taib Andak is a pioneer project that began in 2012 under Action 7 of the LCSBP-IM2025 to develop a model for low carbon community that incorporates the application of low carbon mitigation measures, such as energy-saving practices, use of oil palm biomass, 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle), production of green goods and reducing private transportation use. A key emphasis of the project is active community involvement in formulating and subsequently implementing a 12-action low carbon village blueprint towards promoting a low carbon lifestyle within the rural community. Successful programmes to date include organic waste composting, bamboo plantation, provision of recycling bins in each residential block, use of bicycles, social awareness programme and zero open burning. Continuous engagements with the community and regular monitoring of project implementation will be carried out by FELDA (Federal Land Development Authority), IRDA and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.

10. Special Feature: Smart City – Nafas Baru Pasir Gudang – Green and Healthy City

Nafas Baru literally means 'new breath'. It is a programme mooted by IRDA together with Majlis Perbandaran Pasir Gudang (MPPG, Pasir Gudang Municipal Council) to rejuvenate Pasir Gudang to become a Green and Healthy City by 2025. Nafas Baru is in line with both the LCSBP-IM2025 and the Iskandar Malaysia Smart City Framework. The objective is to create 'smarter residents' in terms of resource planning and management through community actions where residents, the municipal council, industries and others work towards transforming Pasir Gudang into a clean, green, healthy and vibrant city.

With the aim of reducing carbon emission intensity by focusing on the three LCSBP-IM2025 pillars: Green Economy, Green Community and Green Environment, four (4) main initiatives have been identified to be implemented in the 2013–2015 period:

1. Green Industry

The green industry programme aims to make the existing industries in Pasir Gudang 'greener', low carbon and environmentally friendly without compromising their production and profit. As a start, ten industries of various types, sectors and sizes have been selected as pilot projects in which participating industries receive assistance to gauge their current status and readiness to adopt green industry initiatives. This will provide the basis for developing industry-specific low-carbon action plans.

2. Green Community Programme

This initiative aims to promote green community and green lifestyles among residents of Pasir Gudang through increasing the level of public awareness of climate change issues and LCS and encouraging them to live a lower-carbon lifestyle. Awareness campaign and teach-in programmes have already started, which focus on strategic aspects that are directly relevant to Pasir Gudang, including energy efficiency, 3R, composting, tree planting, smart travel choices, walking and cycling.

3. Integrated Solid Waste Management (Waste to Energy)

This programme seeks to enhance the implementation of the Integrated Solid Waste Management Blueprint 2009 in the Pasir Gudang area through developing an integrated and sustainable framework for managing solid wastes generated in the area. This is achieved through nurturing a participative and actively engaged public that is motivated to manage solid wastes in an environmentally and socially responsible manner; institutionalising a social and industrial solid waste management 'preferential framework' in the order of eliminate, reduce, reuse and use of advanced treatment and disposal technologies; and developing recycling and treatment technologies capable of generating beneficial by-products with zero or minimal emission.

4. Carbon Sequestration through the Trees Preservation Order (TPO)

This initiative aims to arrest and gradually reverse the decline in the carbon stock in trees in Pasir Gudang. To begin with, MPPG has identified 250 trees to be gazetted under the Trees Preservation Order (TPO) under the Town and Country Planning Act, 1976 (Act 172). The trees, covering 19 species with an age range of 8–30 years, have significant characters of being large and healthy, rare and unique and having substantial aesthetic, historic or tourism value. IRDA and MPPG are now working to price tag TPO gazette trees by identifying their carbon sequestration and monetary values, which will serve as a guide to future tree planting and urban landscape design in Pasir Gudang towards contributing to carbon emission reduction in Iskandar Malaysia.

 
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