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Key Message to Policy Makers

• Transport “best practices” deliver sustained carbon mitigation and co-benefits.

• Best practice cases include policies and projects which are replicable and scalable.

• Case studies demonstrate contextual effectiveness of methods and practices.

• Best practices align sustainability and low-carbon goals spatially and temporally.

• Rational transport system needs integration of interand intracity transport


• Technology cooperation and carbon finance are vital for replication and scalability.


This chapter examines selected case studies which represent “best practice” vis-'a-vis sustainable low-carbon transport policies, measures, technologies, and investments in India. The term “best practice” is used contextually. The central idea for this chapter is not to look for a perfect blueprint of a policy or plan but to critically evaluate what has been or is being implemented and is proven to work. The key “best practice” criteria considered in assessing the case studies are clear vision, assessment of delivered or demonstrated co-benefits of low-carbon choices, as well as their replicability and scalability. The case studies are selected, keeping in view the diversity of transport sector and the multiple interfaces of the sector with development and environment.

The overarching transport policies are framed, mandated, and facilitated by the national government. The implementation in most cases involves subnational governments or sector-specific departments or organizations. The projects are implemented by agencies, including those operated under public-private partnership (PPP). The case studies are therefore selected belonging to both policy and project domains. Successful low-carbon integration between national and subnational governments is essential for successful implementation of policies which requires integration between national policies and subnational initiatives (Matsumoto et al. 2014). The cases selected here look at both national and subnational initiatives on low-carbon transport policies and infrastructure.

The three case studies on policies include major initiatives by the Government of India to improve local environment and/or energy security, but also have bearing on greenhouse gas emissions from transport. The three project case studies include new areas where either the first project is recently initiated (e.g., dedicated freight corridor), the first project is identified (e.g., high-speed rail), or an initial set of projects are already under implementation (e.g., bus rapid transit).

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