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Indonesian Forest

In 2013, Indonesia has forest area of about 128.4 million ha and 59.4 million ha of non-forest area (APL; MoFor 2014). By function, the forest area is classified into 5 categories, namely, conservation forest (HK), protection forest (HL), limited production forest (HPT), production forest (HP), and convertible production forest (HPK). Conservation forest is designated for conservation purposes (Act No. 5/1990, Sanctuary Reserve area, Nature conservation, and Game Hunting Park), while protection forest to serve life support system, maintain hydrological system, prevent of flood, erosion control, and seawater intrusion, and maintain soil fertility. Production forest is aimed for timber and non-timber production, while convertible production forest (HPK) is for non-forest-based activities such as agriculture, settlement, etc. Thus, this forest can be released to become a non-forest area (APL).

Referring to its function, forest clearing and conversion of forest land in HK and HL to other land uses are not allowed. Deforestations occurred in these forests mostly from illegal activities such as logging, forest encroachments, and forest fires. On the contrary, forest clearings are permitted within HP and HPT, especially over unproductive forested areas for the purpose of establishing timber plantation. Unproductive forests comprised of forest areas with less than 25 core tress/ha with dbh of 20 cm up, less than 10 parent trees/ha, and insufficient/very few regeneration (numbers of seedling are less than 1000/ha, sapling less than 240/ha, and poles less than 75/ha). It is thus obvious that not all degraded forests could be converted into plantation forests. HPK is legally designed for other uses, mainly for agriculture, transmigration, plantations, and settlements, thus all forest clearing activities.

Deforestation and forest degradation occurred in all types of forest functions

either due to legal or illegal activities. Level of degradation of the secondary forest also varied from heavily to lightly degraded. With proper treatments, lightly to medium degraded forests can recover to reach climax forests. On the other hand, due to improper management and less strict law enforcement, degraded forests continue deteriorating resulting in severely degraded forests and meet unproductive forest criteria. In 2012, many of forest areas are not covered by forests, particularly in the production forest, and more than half of the remaining forests were secondary forests with various levels of degradation (Fig. 9.2).

High lost of forest cover in forest and implementation of unsustainable land management practices in non-forest area also caused serious damage on land. Forest functions as water retention, erosion control, nutrient cycling, microclimate regulator, and carbon retention were completely depleted. Many of the lands in both forest and non-forest areas are critical. Based on the level of damage, the critical

Fig. 9.2 Area and forest condition in 2013 (MoFor 2014)

lands are classified into five categories, i.e., very critical, critical, rather critical, potentially critical, and not critical. In 2011, the total area of critical lands had reached 27.3 million ha, comprised of 22.0 million ha critical and 5.3 million very critical (MoFor 2014). The critical and very critical lands have been prioritized for the implementation of land rehabilitation program.

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