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Current Issues in Memory: Memory Research in the Public Interest

I Memory representations: From (visual) perception to stored informationThe organization of visuospatial working memory: Evidence from the study of developmental disorders*Visuospatial abilities and their relation to visuospatial working memoryThe individual differences approach in the study of working memoryOrganization of the working memory components within the continuity modelOrganization of the visuospatial components of working memory within the continuity modelVisuospatial working memory and genetic syndromes within the continuity modelVisuospatial working memory and nonverbal (visuospatial) learning disabilities within the continuity modelConclusionsNotesReferencesVisual memory, spatial representation, and navigationIntroductionRepresentational properties and visionVision as the primary spatial modalityEgocentric and allocentric information in spatial memoryFunctional equivalence of different types of encodingModality specificity and spatial representationsViewpoint dependence versus orientation dependenceSummaryNavigational processes and visual memoryPlace and response learningCue guidance and landmark-based navigationCognitive mapsEidetic memoryPath integrationSummaryChallenge for future investigationsNotesReferencesRemembering facesIntroductionFactors affecting face recognitionFace memory compared with object memoryConfigural processing and the inversion effectThe expertise debateNeuropsychology of face memoryThe cognitive neuroscience of face memoryDynamic information in face memoryRecall of faces by eyewitnessesConclusionNoteReferencesMemory for real-world scenesIntroductionThe representation of natural scenesMemory systems potentially contributing to scene representationThe online representation of scenesLonger-term memory for previously viewed scenesUnderstanding change blindnessHow are episodic representations of scenes structured?Spatial structure in scene memorySchema approaches to scene structureThe function of visual memory in scene perceptionThe function of VSTM in scene perceptionVSTM and conscious awarenessVSTM and perceptual integrationVSTM and perceptual comparisonThe function of VLTM in scene perceptionEffects of scene memory on object recognitionEffects of scene memory on knowing where to lookConclusionsNoteReferencesII Memory adaptations: Forgetting the past, remembering the futureThe role of retroactive interference and consolidation in everyday forgettingThe form of forgettingA variety of interference theoriesInterference as trace degradationA role for consolidationA multidisciplinary inquiry into retroactive interference and consolidationThe cellular basis of memory formation in the hippocampusSystems consolidation and forgettingSynaptic consolidation and forgettingSleep-induced retrograde facilitationTemporal gradient of sleep-induced retrograde facilitationSleep and LTPDrug-induced retrograde facilitationTemporal gradient of drug-induced retrograde facilitationTemporal gradients of retrograde amnesia and retrograde facilitationRetroactive interference and everyday forgettingNoteReferencesAutobiographical forgetting, social forgetting, and situated forgetting: Forgetting in contextIntroductionAutobiographical memory: Forgetting the personal pastStudying autobiographical forgettingRetrieval-induced forgettingDirected forgettingThink/no-thinkConclusionSocial forgetting: Forgetting with othersStudying social forgettingSocially shared retrieval-induced forgetting (SS-RIF)Collaborative recallConclusionSituated forgetting: Forgetting in contextDistributed cognition and situated forgettingSocially situated forgetting and transactive memoryFinal thoughtsNoteReferencesTake the field!: Investigating prospective memory in naturalistic and real-life settingsStudying prospective memory in naturalistic and real-life settingsResearch on future-oriented cognition and its relevance for prospective memoryInvestigating prospective-memory-related thoughts in real-life situationsPotential pitfalls associated with real-life prospective memory investigationsConclusions and outlookNoteReferencesProspective memory in safety-critical work contextsDisrupted habitual tasksRemembering to substitute atypical actions for habitual actionsInterruptions create prospective memory tasksInterleaving the monitoring of concurrent tasksEncoding deferred intentions in operational settingsDistributed prospective memoryImproving prospective memory in the workplaceConclusions and outlookNotesReferencesIII Memory limitations: False memoriesFalse memories matter: The repercussions that follow the development of false memoryEarly studies: Pickles, eggs, strawberry ice creamCan we make people want to eat more instead of less?Do false memories affect actual behavior?Does it only work on food?Concluding remarksNoteReferencesPhotos and memoryPhotographs and childhood memoriesPhotographs and recent memoriesImplications for criminal justiceImages are powerfulConcluding remarksNoteReferencesForced fabrication and false eyewitness memoriesAn experimental paradigm for investigating the consequences of forced fabricationMethodological considerationsEnsuring testimony is forced rather than freely providedAssessing the extent to which false memories are caused by the forced fabrication interviewDifferentiating between false reports and false beliefs/memoriesEmpirical evidence that forced fabrication leads to false memoriesFactors that mitigate false memory developmentImproving memory for the witnessed event with the cognitive interviewFactors that promote false memory development: The role of confirmatory feedbackExtensions of the forced fabrication paradigm: Does forcing witnesses to fabricate entire fictitious events lead to false memorFactors that influence the incidence and magnitude of false memory for event fabricationsMultifaceted questions and limited processing resourcesThe role of confirmatory interviewer feedbackThe fabricated event’s explanatory roleAn uncertainty monitoring account of false memories that result from forced fabricationConcluding remarksNotesReferencesWhen children are the worst and best eyewitnesses: Factors behind the development of false memoryEvoking false memoriesMisinformation paradigmImplantation paradigmDeese-Roediger-McDermott paradigmAssociative activation theorySource monitoringPrecursors of children’s false memoryPlausibilityValenceScript knowledgeKnowledge base and false memory developmentConcluding remarksNoteReferencesFactors affecting the reliability of children’s forensic reports: An updated reviewAutobiographical memorySuggestibilityDisclosure patterns among sexually abused childrenAdults’ retrospective accounts of CSA and childhood disclosure: Evidence on delayed disclosureStudies of children undergoing forensic evaluation for suspected abuse: Evidence on abuse denials and recantationsConclusionsNotesReferencesIV Memory augmentations: How can memory capacities be improved?Individual differences in working memory and agingAssessment of WMWithin-context measuresRedundant information requestsProbesOut of context WM assessmentUpdatingSimultaneous storage and processingWM relationsInternal relationsExternal relationsConclusionNoteReferencesWorking memory training in late adulthood: A behavioral and brain perspectiveEarly cognitive training studiesWorking memory intervention studies: Behavioral resultsTraining executive cognitive control processes: Dual-taskingTraining in updating, shifting, and inhibitionTraining in maintenance and cognitive control: The complex working memory span taskConclusions: The behavioral training studies of working memoryWorking memory plasticity: Brain imaging studiesImportant questions for future researchNoteReferencesMore than just a memory: The nature and validity of working memory in educational settingsModels of working memoryBaddeley and Hitch’s multicomponent modelCowan’s embedded-processes modelEricsson and Kintsch’s long-term working memory theoryAssessment of working memoryLaboratory assessment of verbal working memoryDigit, letter, and word span tasksListening span tasksComputation span testCounting span taskAssessment of visual-spatial working memoryStar Counting TestDirection Span TestOther spatial tasksEducational applications of working memoryWechsler assessmentsThe Woodcock–Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG)Stanford–Binet Intelligence Scales, Fifth Edition (SB5)Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition (DAS-II)Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, Second Edition (WRAML2)Working Memory Test Battery for Children (WMTB-C)Ecological validityVerisimilitude and veridicalityConclusionsNoteReferencesBeneFIts of testing memory: Best practices and boundary conditionsTest-enhanced learningThe format of testsTesting and feedbackSchedules for testingDangers of multiple-choice and true/false testsMetacognition and self-regulated learningApplications of testing in classroomsConclusionNoteReferences

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