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To examine demographic between-group group differences, we conducted ANOVA at the level of global ability/trait El, and MANOVA at the level of branches/factors. We further used correlational analysis to inform us on the relationship between the tw'o Els and age.

Associations with age

When calculating simple linear correlations, both Els and their respective components (i.e., branches/factors), with the exception of the Using Emotions branch, showed a statistically significant and negative relation to age. The strength of these associations was generally small, and slightly larger for trait than for ability El: Pearson’s /• was -.16, -.17, and -.23 for the Perceiving, Understanding and Managing Emotions branches, respectively, reaching r = -.24 for global ability El; for trait El, correlations at the factor- level ranged from -.23, for Self-Control, to -.33, for Sociability, the latter value also applying to the global trait El score (w'ith p < .001 in all instances).

To address the possibility of a non-linear, inverted U-shaped association between age and El, we created three age cohorts, using the same cut-off points as Cabello et al. (2016), w'ho previously established an inverted U relationship between age and ability El. The results of ANOVAs and MANOVAs testing for age cohort differences in the tw'o Els are given in Table 3.1. Significant between-group differences were found for both ability El and trait El at the level of global scores, with post hoc tests revealing that, in both cases, these differences were due to significantly lower scores of the eldest (45+) group. The results of multivariate tests with branch/factor scores as dependents were also significant for both Els, and univariate F tests pointed to significant and substantial effects of age on all ability El branches and trait El factors. As demonstrated by post hoc tests, it was always the eldest 45+ group that scored

Age-cohort differences in ability El by educational attainment

Figure 3.1 Age-cohort differences in ability El by educational attainment.

Source: Authors’ own compilation.

significantly lower than either both younger groups (on all trait El factors and the Managing Emotions branch) or one of them (on Understanding Emotions and the two experiential branches of ability El), with no significant differences between the youngest and the middle group (see Table 3.1 and Figure 3.1 for details).

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