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The Slovak Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire for Adolescents

Lada Kaliska and Eva Nabelkova


The Slovak Republic is a country located in Central Europe with a territory of about 49,000 square kilometers (19,000 square miles), being mostly mountainous in the north and flat in the south. The population is over 5.4 million and consists mostly of Slovaks. The capital and largest city is Bratislava. The Slovac Republic used to be a part of Czechoslovakia under the Communist regime, however in 1989 the Velvet Revolution ended Communist rule and after the peaceful dissolution of Czechoslovakia on January 1, 1993, Slovakia became an independent state. In 2004, Slovakia joined the European Union and in January 2009 it joined the Eurozone. Slovakia numbers among the few countries worldwide that have recently elected a female president (since June 2019).

Slovakia has a high-income advanced economy (as stated by World Bank Country and Leading Group classification, June 2018) and holds 39th position in ranking on the WHO Happiness Report with a significant positive change from 2008-2010 to 2015-2017 (Helliwell, Layard, & Sachs, 2018). It can be claimed that the country has a very high standard of living and performs favorably in measurements of civil liberties, freedom of the press, Internet freedom, democratic governance, and peacefulness. The country maintains a combination of a burgeoning market economy and a comprehensive social security system. The citizens of Slovakia are provided with universal health care, free education, and one of the longest paid parental leave policies (up to three years per child) in the OECD.

Emotional intelligence in Slovak conditions

Intelligence is a popular psychological construct for various professional groups worldwide, not excluding the countries of the Central-Eastern part of Europe. It remains an important theoretical and empirical topic, even in a small country such as the Slovak Republic. The research on El in Slovak conditions has been primarily aimed at the trait model (Petrides, 2009) due to the limited availability of performance-based emotional competency assessments. The initial research for our study started with grant projects by the Slovak research grant agency and included the first project, “The Verification of Psychological Properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire” (VEGA 1/ 0711/10, researched in 2010-2011) with principal investigator, V. Salbot, from Matej Bel University in Banska Bystrica, Slovakia. The second research project “Verification of Psychometrical Properties of Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaires: follow-up project - 2nd part” (VEGA 1/0945/13, research in 2013-2015) involved principal investigator E. Nabelkova from the same university. The main purposes were to modify, adapt, and validate the original Petrides concept of trait emotional intelligence and his questionnaires for three age categories (children, adolescents, and adults) in Slovakia. This standardization included establishing reliability (stability in time, inner consistency, split-half) and validity (construct: convergent/discriminant, criteria, incremental, predictive) of all questionnaire forms (short and long) and versions (for children, adolescents, and adults). The aim of this chapter is also to confirm the anticipated four-factor structure of trait El as measured by the above-mentioned questionnaires. The El concept was examined in the context of various personality, social, educational, and work variables. The summarizing results were published in the first scientific monograph by Salbot, Kaliska, Nabelkova, Babicova, and Bakova (2011). The second monograph, Crtova emocionalna inteligencia a psychometricke vlastnosti nastrojov na jej meranie (Trait Emotional Intelligence and Psychometric Properties of the Instruments for its Assessment; Kaliska & Nabelkova, 2015) presents the summary of the psychometric properties of the long Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaires for three age groups including the standardized percentile and z-score-based norms for the Slovak population. The manual of the Slovak Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaires - Short Forms (Kaliska, Nabelkova, & Salbot, 2015) presents the psychometric properties and Slovak standardizations for the short forms of the three age groups and has been used widely in Slovak settings, particularly education and counseling.

There has been a continuing interest in the El concept, including the follow-up research project (VEGA 1/0654/17 researched in 2017-2019), which builds upon the results of the previous two studies. The aim of this project is to further the theoretical and empirical analysis of at least three El model types: as a cognitive-emotional ability operationalized by the Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000), as a mixed/competence model with the Profile of Emotional Competence (PEC, Brasseur, Gregoire, Bourdu, & Mikolajczak, 2013) and as a trait El with the Slovak version of the TEIQue questionnaire (Petrides, 2009) as well as the Schutte’s Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS Schutte et al., 1998), the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS: Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, & Palfai, 1995) and other trait El scales. In addition to the three complimentary El models, the current research ambitions are to examine their relationship to cognitive intelligence (in fluid and crystalized form) and new types of intelligences (e.g., social intelligence: Thorndike, 1920; multiple intelligence: Gardner, 1993; moral intelligence: Hass, 1995; triarchic intelligence: Sternberg, 2000). The first two types (social and multiple) are examined in the current study presented here. Further studies in Slovakia may consider the possibility of exploring the biological and sociocultural determinants of El in the international context.

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