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Research method

We hypothesized that measures of El and SI will show differences between managers and non-managers, and further gender-based differences among managerial workers, in a Slovakian sample. A similar study conducted by Birknerova et al. (2015) found that managers, as opposed to non- managerial workers, are better at expressing their emotions; more skilled in conversations and negotiations; are able to take into account the opinions of others; are able to empathize with others’ emotions; are driven by the need to do high quality work; and are more resolute, persistent, and mentally stable. According to this study, managers also excel in SI more than their non-managerial colleagues, as they are capable of controlling their desires and drives, perceive impulses as a good regulation of external pressures and stress, focus more on an individual within various social contexts than personal relationships with their family and close friends, and are better in social interactions. The main objective of the research conducted for the purposes of the present study was to detect the levels of El and SI among Slovak managers and non-managers, and among Slovak managers in terms of their gender.

A sample of 341 employed respondents was recruited from the organizations in the public (227 participants) and private (114 participants) sectors. There were 153 managers (63 male, 90 female) and 188 non-managerial workers. In the overall sample 104 were male and 237 were female. Using a snowball (or chain referral) sampling method, 236 respondents were recruited from urban areas and 105 from rural areas in Slovakia. Of the total sample, 161 were single, 143 were married, 34 were divorced, and 3 were widowed. The average age of the participants was 33.84 years (SD = 8.90), the youngest respondent was 20 and the oldest was 53.

Emotional intelligence was measured by means of theTEIQue-SF (Petrides & Furnham, 2006) as described in Chapters 3 and 5. Four factors have been specified only within the long version of TEIQue (Petrides, 2009) but several previous studies have confirmed that it is appropriate to specify these four secondary El factors, that is, Well-Being, Self-Control, Emotionality, and Sociability, also within the short version of this methodology (e.g., Birknerova et al., 2015). Reliability of the utilized version is a = .757.

Social Intelligence was assessed by means of two methodologies. One was the TS1S (Silvera et al., 2001) as described in Chapter 5. Silvera et al. provide Cronbach’s alpha values for each subscale: Social information processing (SP) = 0.79: Social skills (SS) = 0.85; Social awareness (SA) = 0.72 (Silvera et al., 2001). The values calculated within the presented study are: SP = 0.82; SS = 0.73; SA = 0.76.

The second SI measure was M ESI (Measuring SI; Frankovsky & Birknerova, 2014). MESI detects SI as a personality trait and its authors assume the trans- situational stability of SI, which they define as a dispositional personality attribute. MESI was developed on the basis of the previous research studies in which the EMESI methodology (Frankovsky & Birknerova, 2013) was used. Both MESI and EMESI were inspired, and proposed according to the PESI methodology created, by Kaukiainen, Bjorkqvist, Osterman, Lagerspetz, and Forsblom (1995).

MESI consists of 21 items evaluated on a 5-point Likert scale where 0 represents “never” and 4 represents “very often.” By means of a factor analysis, three factors were extracted and labeled by Frankovsky and Birknerova (2014) as follows:

  • 1) Manipulation: People who have higher scores in this SI attribute are able to persuade others to do almost anything. They can use others for their own benefit and persuade them to take their side, showing little remorse in doing so. They use the lies of others for their own advantage. The reliability for this factor was a = 0.854.
  • 2) Empathy: Individuals with higher scores in this factor are able to recognize the intentions, feelings, and weaknesses of other people. They can decipher the ways others think, can adapt to, and accommodate, new acquaintances, and guess their wishes as well as fulfill them. This factor’s reliability was a = 0.783.
  • 3) Social irritability: Persons characterized by higher scores in this factor are nervous when in contact with other people. They avoid the presence of others if possible. Feelings of others baffle them. Adapting to other people is a problem for them as it invokes unpleasant feelings. Weaknesses and wishes of others confuse them. In this factor the reliability was a = 0.716.

Data for this research were processed by the statistical software SPSS. A survey data collection approach was used in this study. The participants filled out the questionnaires after providing informed consent. Completing the questionnaire packet took about 25-35 minutes. All the differential analyses were carried out by means of t-tests (given the fact that the distribution of the data studied was normal, and it was possible to calculate the mean values, etc.).

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