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Research sample

The research sample consisted of 322 high-school students (average age: 17.7 /SD = .46/; 58.4 percent of females) from three high schools of the central Slovak region. Seven of the students did not fulfill the GSEs and CDS scale (mortality of 2.2 percent), and 9 students did not complete or finish the CDSE scale (mortality of 2.8 percent). The research sample was obtained by targeted and occasional sampling as a part of professional orientation testing. Either the parental or individual (18-year-olds) informed consent forms were signed voluntarily two weeks before testing.


Trait El w'as assessed by the short Slovak version of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF; Kaliska, Nabelkova,

& Salbot, 2015) created by Petrides (2009) and as described in Chapter 5. Reliability estimates in the sense of inner consistency were for the whole sample: a=.87.

To assess career decision-making difficulties, participants responded to the Slovak version of the Emotional and Personality Career Difficulties Scale (EPCD; Saka et ah, 2008). The scale consists of 53 items, each item representing one of 11 difficulty categories, answered on a 9-point scale (1 - does not describe me, to 9 - describes me well). The total score and the sum from the three clusters (Pessimistic Views; Anxiety; Self-concept!Identity) were calculated. Higher scores indicate greater career difficulties in those areas. Reliability estimates in the sense of inner consistency were for the whole sample: a=.94.

Career decision self-efficacy was assessed by The Career Decision Self- Efficacy Scale - Short Form (CDSE-SF; Betz et ah, 1996). The scale includes 25 items divided by five scales including accurate self-appraisal, gathering occupational information, goal selection, making plans for the future, and problem-solving. The answers were obtained using a scale with five alternatives, ranging from 1 = not at all confident, to 5 = totally confident. The total score on the scale was calculated by adding the responses to the 25 items; higher scores indicated higher levels of career decision self-efficacy. Reliability estimates in the sense of inner consistency were for the whole sample: a=.91. Studies of the dimensionality of the CDSE (e.g., Hampton, 2005; Taylor & Betz, 1983) suggest that the scale is primarily a general measure of career decision-making self-efficacy rather than self-efficacy expectations for five career decision skills.

Generalized self-efficacy was assessed by the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995; Slovak adaptation by Kosc, Heftyova, Schwarzer, & Jerusalem, 1993). The scale is a 10-item scale that is designed to assess optimistic self-beliefs to cope with a variety of difficult demands in life. The scale with 5 options, ranging from 1 = not relevant at all, to 4 = exactly true. The scale is one-dimensional with higher scores indicating better- generalized self-efficacy. Reliability estimates in the sense of inner consistency were for the whole sample: a=.82.

For data analysis, apart from descriptive statistics, correlation analyses were run to estimate the relations of trait El to career decision-making difficulties, generalized self-efficacy, and career decision self-efficacy. Additionally, a hierarchical three-step regression analysis was conducted with global level of career difficulties as a dependent variable. It was predicted by the generalized self-efficacy and the career decision self-efficacy and above by the global trait El level to support the incremental validity of trait El. In our research sample we entered the individual trait El factors instead of the global trait El level.

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