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Automotive Power Systems

Architecture of an Automotive Power SystemArchitecture of the Automotive Power SystemVoltage Used for Electrical Distribution SystemThermal Challenges for Electrical ComponentsAbnormal Voltages—Sources and Device RatingsInductive LoadTransients on the DC BusReverse Voltage ProtectionMutual CouplingRequirements for the Electrical Energy System DesignDistribution of Electrical EnergyFusesCables for Automotive ApplicationsHarness DesignRepresentation of the Electrical CircuitConclusionBibliographyAppendix #1 British Standard Colors for CablesAppendix #2 European Color Codes for CablesAppendix #3 Popular Terminal Designation NumbersBatteriesHistorical MilestonesFunctions of the Storage BatteryConstruction of a Lead–Acid Cell-Type BatteryHydrometer ReadingsVoltage Level TestCapacityBattery ChargersElectrical Characteristics of Lead–Acid BatteriesInternal ResistanceEfficiencyNew Technologies for Sealed and Maintenance-Free BatteriesOther Possible Storage of Electrical EnergySupercapacitorsFuel CellConclusionReferencesStarter—AlternatorAlternator’s RoleConstruction of an AlternatorElectronic Controls for AlternatorGeneral RequirementsClosed-Loop Regulation of VoltageAlternator Requirements for 48 V SystemsUsing a Switched-Mode Rectifier to Increase Output PowerOther Electrical Machine Instead “Alternators”Starter SystemsStarter ConstructionInertia StarterPre-Engaged StartersPermanent Magnet StartersTypical Torque CharacteristicsIntegrated Starter AlternatorConclusionReferencesBody SystemsIntroduction to Body SystemsPower Window (Electrical Windows)Power Lock DoorsSoft-Top ConvertibleHard-Top ConvertiblePower SeatsElectric SunroofElectric MirrorsCruise ControlModeling the Cruise ControlActuator for Cruise ControlDrive-by-WireClimate-ControlHeaterElectronic Heater ControlA/C CompressorShape Memory Alloy ActuatorsConclusionReferencesPower Converters Used in Body SystemsElectrical Motors Used in Body SystemsIntegration of Power ElectronicsHigh Level of IntegrationMedium Level of IntegrationLow Level of IntegrationPower ConvertersUnidirectional dc Motor DrivesBidirectional dc Motor DrivesSingle-Phase Power ConvertersThree-Phase InvertersPWM GeneratorsDead-TimeIntegrated Circuits for Motor ControlSensorsThermistorsHall-Effect Position SensorCurrent SensorsVoltage MeasurementConclusionReferencesChassis SystemsElectrification of TransportationIntroductionAncillary Energy Sources Derived from the EngineRoad to All-Electric Vehicle ConceptBrake SystemsElectric Vacuum Power with a MOSFET Power ConverterElectronic Control of Power SteeringSolution 1: An Electrical Motor Drives the PumpSolution 2: Electrically Assisted Power SteeringSolution 3: Principle of Electronic Power SteeringDynamic Modeling of the Power SteeringDesign With a BLDC MotorProgressive Steering WheelAutomotive SuspensionConclusionReferencesLightingAutomotive Light SourcesConventional Lighting CircuitsGas Discharge Lamps and Their Electronic ControlLED Lights and Their Electronic ControlLaser LightsConclusionReferencesdc/dc ConvertersRole of dc/dc Power ConvertersDirect Conversion (without Galvanic Isolation)Buck ConverterBoost ConverterOther Topologies of Non-Isolated dc/dc ConvertersMulti-Phase ConvertersThe Synchronous ConverterIsolated ConvertersFlyback ConverterDirect (Forward) ConverterPush–Pull ConverterPhase-Shift ConverterNeed for AC powerLow Power SolutionsHigh Power SolutionsConclusionReferencesFeedback Control SystemsFeedback Control of Dynamic SystemsImplementation Within Analog-Mode Power Supply CircuitsDesign of Feedback Control SystemsRequirements for Feedback Control of a Power SupplyCase Studies: Feedback Control for Various Power SuppliesAnalog Circuit in Follower ConnectionAnalog Circuit with an Inverting TopologyBoost/Buck ConvertersAnalog-Mode Feedback Control SolutionsType I CompensationType II CompensationType III CompensationDesign Process From Constraints to Component SelectionOn the Use of Conventional PI/D ControllersConversion of Analog Control Law to Digital SolutionsControl System Influence on Power Electronics HardwareConclusionReferencesPower MOSFETPower MOSFET in Automotive ApplicationsThe Ideal SwitchEnhancement-Mode and Depletion-Mode MOSFETsOperation PrincipleSafe Operation AreaGate Driver RequirementsUsing P-Channel MOSFET DevicesParameters Used in MOSFET SelectionSynchronous RectificationAdvanced FET DevicesConclusionReferencesFuses and Relay CircuitsIntelligent Switch Versus Solid-State RelayElectromagnetic RelaysUsing Electromagnetic RelaysConstructionSolid-State RelaysIntroduction to FusesCircuit BreakersAutomotive Varistor and Transient-Voltage-Suppression (TVS)SolenoidsElectromechanical SolenoidSolenoid ValvePower Converter DriveConclusionReferencesSmall MotorsPrinciple of Electrical MotorsPermanent Magnet MotorsVariable Reluctance MotorDC MotorsInduction MotorBrushless MotorsComparison between Brushless dc Motor and the Induction MotorDesign of Low-Power dc MotorsShunt-Wound dc MotorsSeries-Wound dc MotorsCompound Wound dc MotorPermanent Magnet dc MotorsApplications: Fans, Blowers, PumpsDesign Issues Related to the dc Distribution BusMotor Design: Inertia MatchingMotor Design: Torque RequirementsUltrasonic Motors (Piezoelectric Motors)PrincipleControl and OptimizationConclusionReferencesPower Integrated CircuitsIntegrated-Circuit TechnologiesArchitecture of Analog or Mixed-Mode Power ICExample of Disruptive Innovation—PWM Control ChipFlyback PWM Controller IC for Isolated Power SuppliesThree-Phase Power MOSFET ControllerHigh-Voltage Gate Drivers for High-Voltage Propulsion DrivesIC Design ConsiderationsPower MOSFET Used within Integrated CircuitsPower DiodeGate DriverBand Gap ReferencePWM GeneratorCurrent SensorAuxiliary Protection CircuitrySoft-Start CircuitryI/O ConnectionsDigital IC SolutionsConclusionReferencesPropulsion SystemsPropulsion ArchitectureInduction Motor Drive—Converter SystemBrushless dc Motor DriveSwitched Reluctance Motor DriveHigh-Voltage Energy StorageConclusionReferences

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