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Analyzing Organization Cultures

The Migration and Mutation of "Culture"Grasping the Idea of "Culture"The Existence of SubculturesPolitical Processes Impact CultureCultures Are Always in a State of FluxThe Human Relations Perspective Era (1920s-1960s)The Hawthorne StudiesSome Subsequent Human Relations ContributionsThe Performance Perspective Era (1980s-Date)A Summary of Some Classic Performance Perspective LiteratureA Few Additional Performance Perspective ContributionsSome Key Similarities and Differences in Recent OrientationsThe Critical Theorists (1990s-Date)Some Concluding ObservationsThe Subsequent ChaptersReferencesSelf-Directed Teams and Peer Discipline at FinosPeer Discipline Theory DevelopmentPrior Fieldwork on Peer DisciplinePeer Discipline in a Unit of FinosThe Organization Culture at FinosShifting to a Self-Directed Team CulturePeer Discipline ExperiencesConcluding ObservationsConclusionReferencesThe Team Culture at Value StoresThe Human Relations Fieldwork on Sears (1940s-1950s)The Organization Culture of WalmartThe Value Stores Field StudyThe Official Value Stores Organization CultureSome Employee ExperiencesTim Barr's StoryGeorge Sanchez's StoryJulia Hammond's StoryYvonne Owens' StoryPat Wood's StoryThe Cultural Comparisons Drawn by Our ParticipantsComparing the Culture at Value Stores to the Prior LiteratureEvidence of Employee Informal OrganizationEvidence of Store Operating CulturesConclusionReferencesMelding Six Sigma into the Organizational Culture at InsuroHuman Relations Era (1930s-1960s) Background MaterialFieldwork Dealing with Employee Suggestion ProgramsFieldwork Dealing with Budgeting and Cost ContainmentJapanese Management Techniques and Six Sigma ProgramsThe Issues Involved in Trying to Transplant Japanese Management MethodsThe Introduction of Six Sigma ProgramsThe Insuro CaseThe Historic ContextA Benchmarking Study Reveals High Administrative CostsConflicting Interpretations of the ReorganizationsTeams Offered SuggestionsCompetitive Managerial BehaviorsThe Expression of Appreciation and Unanticipated Employee DiscontentLeaks to the News MediaA Productive Informal Contest or a Breach of the Ethical Code?Female Career Progression: Could Some of the Women Break the Glass Ceiling?Closing ObservationsReasons the Cultural Similarity Hypothesis Did Not ApplyThe Six Sigma Literature and Insuro's Management PracticesDoes Six Sigma Alleviate or Create Paradoxical Managerial Behaviors?A Conceptual Map of the Organizational Culture at InsuroCell 1: The Formal Organization and the Official CultureCell 2: The Operating Cultures Within the Official CultureCell 3: Informal Organization Within the Formal OrganizationCell 4: The Operating Cultures and Informal OrganizationUsing the Conceptual Map as an Analytic ToolConclusionReferencesThe Yin and Yang of Introducing a Sales Culture: The Amalgam Bank CaseThe Introduction of a "Sales Culture" in BanksDifferent Conceptions of Organization CultureThe Heritage of the Integration PerspectiveThe Heritage of the Differentiation and Fragmentation PerspectivesThe Yin and the Yang MetaphorThe Amalgam Bank Case StudyMethodologyThe Original Customer Service Cultural OrientationThe Introduction of SellingSome Amalgam Bank Employee Experiences and ReactionsCustomer Irritation and Slower ServicePressure to SellVoiced Employee Concerns and Silencing BehaviorsDouble StandardsInadequate Rewards and RecognitionJuicing the NumbersLessened Upward Mobility and Increased TurnoverDiscussionConclusionNoteReferencesThe Organization Culture at Balbec's Housing DepartmentSome Relevant Private and Public Sector Organization Culture LiteratureActs of Commission and Acts of OmissionThe Balbec Housing Department Field StudyCreating the Official Culture via Acts of CommissionOfficial Culture StatementsThe Rewards and Recognition CeremonyMixed Acts Reflecting the Housing Department's Formal OrganizationTeamworkDisciplinary SituationsReorganizationValuing DiversityActs of Omission to Please a CustomerCustomer ServiceLocal Political OversightThe AftermathAmbiguityConflicting NormsClosing ObservationsConclusionReferencesAnticipating Reactions to Managerial DecisionsThe Anticipation of How Others Will RespondManagerial Decision Making in OrganizationsThe Influence of Those on the Lower LevelsThe Way Organization Culture Fits into the ProcessThe Influence of Consultants on the ProcessThe Influence of Stockholders, Other Investors, Board Members and Stock AnalystsConsidering the Legal and Regulatory ContextThe Influence of the Media and the General PublicThe Activities of Competitors Influence the ProcessAdditional Influences Such as Customers, Suppliers and Special-Interest GroupsAnticipating "Chain Reactions"Anticipatory "Tunnel Vision"Cost-Savings "Tunnel Vision" at InsuroSales Pressure "Tunnel Vision" at Amalgam BankSales Pressure "Tunnel Vision" at Wells FargoClosing ObservationsConclusionReferencesThe Unifying Goal of Pleasing CustomersPleasing Customers in the Performance PerspectiveSome Relevant Prior LiteratureSome Recent Customer Satisfaction FieldworkSome Recent Media CoverageWhat Our Fieldwork Revealed About Satisfying Customers"Client Focus" at FinosBeing "Quick and Warm" at Value StoresAdding Selling to the Service Culture at Amalgam BankServing Customer Interests at the Balbec Housing DepartmentSome Closing ObservationsConclusionReferencesConducting Organization Culture AnalysesThe Stances of Fieldworkers and ConsultantsThe Human Relations Perspective Era (1920s-1960s)The Performance Perspective Era (1980s-Date)Comparing and Contrasting These Two Historic ErasDescriptive Versus Prescriptive WorkThe Degree of Emphasis Placed on History and Informal OrganizationThe Proper Role of Scholars and ResearchersThe Contributions of Our Field StudiesThe Vertical IssuesPersonal Work HistoriesOrganizational HistoryThe Horizontal IssuesEvidence of Local Operating CulturesEvidence of Informal OrganizationContextual Interpretations of Global Cultural RecommendationsMixed Results and Unexpected Trade-offsMeasurement and RevisionSome Closing ObservationsClues from the GrapevineA Few Concluding ThoughtsReferencesAppendix: The Methods UsedBiographies

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