- 1. Discuss optical connector failures.
- 2. List at least ten causes for the failure of mechanical seals.
- 3. Discuss at least 12 typical failure modes of mechanical seals.
- 4. Discuss at least nine types of corrosion or degradation that can cause failure.
- 5. List at least six commonly used corrosion/condition monitoring methods.
- 6. Discuss fatigue damage initiation assessment in oil and gas steel pipes.
- 7. Assume that in Figure 11.3, the occurrence probabilities of independent fault events A, D, E, F, G, /, J, and К are 0.04. 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09,
- 0.10, and 0.11, respectively. Calculate the occurrence probability of the top event T (i.e., oil-gas pipeline failure) and also the reliability of the oilgas pipeline.
- 8. Define a common cause failure. What are the causes of common cause failures’ occurrence?
- 9. What are the causes for the occurrence of following four failure modes of mechanical seals:
- • Open seal face-axial
- • Accelerated seal face wear
- • Seal face distortion
- • Seal embitterment
- 10. Describe the common cause failures defense approach for oil and gas industry safety instrumented systems.
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- 2. Dhillon, B.S., Safety and Reliability in the Oil and Gas Industry, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2016.
- 3. Jones, R.T., Thiraviam, A., Reliability of Fiber Optic Connectors, Proceedings of the IEEE OCEANS Conference, 2010, pp. 1-10.
- 4. Wilson, B., Mechanical Seals, Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 47, No. 2, 1995, pp. 4.
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- 8. Kermani, M.B., Hydrogen Cracking and Its Mitigation in the Petroleum Industry, Proceedings of the Conference on Hydrogen Transport and Cracking in Metals, 1994,
- 9. Pinheira, B., et al., Assessment of Fatigue Damage Initiation in Oil and Gas Steel Pipes, Proceedings of the ASME 30th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering, 2011, pp. 1-10.
- 10. Lyons, D., Western European Cross-Country Oil Pipelines 30-Year Performance Statistics, Report No. 1/02, CONCAWE. Brussels, Belgium. 2002.
- 11. Paulson, K., A Comparative Analysis of Pipeline Performance, 2000-2003, National Energy Board, Alberta, Canada, 2005.
- 12. Dhillon, B.S., Singh, C., Engineering Reliability: New Techniques and Applications, John Wiley, New York. 1981.
- 13. Tian, H., et al., Application of Fault Tree Analysis in the Reliability Analysis of Oil-gas Long Pipeline, Proceedings of the International Conference on Pipelines and Trenchless Technology, 2013, pp. 1436-1446.
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- 15. Lundteigen, M.A., Rausand, M., Common cause failures in safety instrumented systems on oil and gas installations: implementing defense measures through testing, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Vol. 20, 2007, pp. 218-229.
- 16. Dhillon, B.S., Proctor, C.L., Common-Mode Failure Analysis of Reliability Networks, Proceedings of the Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, 1977, pp. 404-408.