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Problems

  • 1. Discuss optical connector failures.
  • 2. List at least ten causes for the failure of mechanical seals.
  • 3. Discuss at least 12 typical failure modes of mechanical seals.
  • 4. Discuss at least nine types of corrosion or degradation that can cause failure.
  • 5. List at least six commonly used corrosion/condition monitoring methods.
  • 6. Discuss fatigue damage initiation assessment in oil and gas steel pipes.
  • 7. Assume that in Figure 11.3, the occurrence probabilities of independent fault events A, D, E, F, G, /, J, and К are 0.04. 0.05, 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09,
  • 0.10, and 0.11, respectively. Calculate the occurrence probability of the top event T (i.e., oil-gas pipeline failure) and also the reliability of the oilgas pipeline.
  • 8. Define a common cause failure. What are the causes of common cause failures’ occurrence?
  • 9. What are the causes for the occurrence of following four failure modes of mechanical seals:
    • • Open seal face-axial
    • • Accelerated seal face wear
    • • Seal face distortion
    • • Seal embitterment
  • 10. Describe the common cause failures defense approach for oil and gas industry safety instrumented systems.

References

  • 1. Kane, R.D., Corrosion in Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Operations, in Metals Handbook, Vol. 13C: Environments and Industries, edited by S.O. Cramer and B.S. Covino. ASM International, Metals Park, Ohio, 2003, pp. 967-1014.
  • 2. Dhillon, B.S., Safety and Reliability in the Oil and Gas Industry, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2016.
  • 3. Jones, R.T., Thiraviam, A., Reliability of Fiber Optic Connectors, Proceedings of the IEEE OCEANS Conference, 2010, pp. 1-10.
  • 4. Wilson, B., Mechanical Seals, Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, Vol. 47, No. 2, 1995, pp. 4.
  • 5. Skewis, W.H., Mechanical Seal Failure Modes, Support Systems Technology Corporation, Gaithersburg, Maryland, retrieved on May 28, 2015 from website:http:docslide.us/ documents/mechanical-seal-failure-modes.html.
  • 6. Price, J.C., Fitness-for-purpose Failure and Corrosion Control Management in Offshore Oil and Gas Development, Proceedings of the 11th International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, 2001, pp. 234-241.
  • 7. Kermani, M.B., Harrop, D., The Impact of Corrosion on the Oil and Gas Industry, Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE) Production and Facilities, August 1996, pp. 186-190.
  • 8. Kermani, M.B., Hydrogen Cracking and Its Mitigation in the Petroleum Industry, Proceedings of the Conference on Hydrogen Transport and Cracking in Metals, 1994,

pp. 1-8.

  • 9. Pinheira, B., et al., Assessment of Fatigue Damage Initiation in Oil and Gas Steel Pipes, Proceedings of the ASME 30th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering, 2011, pp. 1-10.
  • 10. Lyons, D., Western European Cross-Country Oil Pipelines 30-Year Performance Statistics, Report No. 1/02, CONCAWE. Brussels, Belgium. 2002.
  • 11. Paulson, K., A Comparative Analysis of Pipeline Performance, 2000-2003, National Energy Board, Alberta, Canada, 2005.
  • 12. Dhillon, B.S., Singh, C., Engineering Reliability: New Techniques and Applications, John Wiley, New York. 1981.
  • 13. Tian, H., et al., Application of Fault Tree Analysis in the Reliability Analysis of Oil-gas Long Pipeline, Proceedings of the International Conference on Pipelines and Trenchless Technology, 2013, pp. 1436-1446.
  • 14. Summers, A.E., Raney, G., Common cause and common sense, designing failure out of your safety instrumented system (SIS), ISA Transactions, Vol. 38, 1999, pp. 291-299.
  • 15. Lundteigen, M.A., Rausand, M., Common cause failures in safety instrumented systems on oil and gas installations: implementing defense measures through testing, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Vol. 20, 2007, pp. 218-229.
  • 16. Dhillon, B.S., Proctor, C.L., Common-Mode Failure Analysis of Reliability Networks, Proceedings of the Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium, 1977, pp. 404-408.
 
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