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The evaluation theory tree developed by Carden and Alkin (2012) summarizes all established conceptual frameworks and approaches advanced by earlier researchers and theorists of evaluation studies. Carden and Alkin (2012) argued that the existing concepts in the evaluation practice are those of the developed world, namely North America, New Zealand, Australia and Europe and as such. The field of evaluation has also been developed based on the needs and perspectives of the developed regions at the expense of low middle-income countries (LMIC). Given the foregoing, conceptual approaches to monitoring and evaluation in the developing countries are either adapted or adopted, which leads to numerous challenges in its implementation in these countries. The ensuing chapter throws light on some established M&E models.

62 Theories, models and concepts


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