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IME model justification

While research on construction project M&E has not generated consensus on a single theory to underpin the effective implementation of M&E, the programme theory and the theory of change encapsulate the essential variables needed for effective M&E, hence they both merit as justifiable theories for the conceptualized

Conceptual IME model for construction 79

Table 6.2 Latent variables and measuring constructs of the conceptual IME model

Latent variable constructs

Measurement variables


1 Engaging stakeholders in M&E


2 Providing stakeholder need for M&E

Features (SIF)

  • 3 Recognition of project stakeholders
  • 4 Motivating stakeholder towards M&E
  • 5 Experience of stakeholders in M&E
  • 6 Stakeholder interest in M&E
  • 7 Stakeholder expectation in M&E
  • 8 Identifying stakeholders
  • 9 Managing stakeholders’ power structures
  • 10 Influence of stakeholders on the project
  • 11 Stakeholders’ involvement in M&E
  • 12 Collaboration at all levels among stakeholders
  • 13 Satisfying stakeholders
  • 14 Training stakeholders on M&E
  • 15 Developing stakeholder capacity on M&E

Budgetary Allocation

1 Sufficient budget allocated for M&E

Features (BAF)

  • 2 Availability of funds for the M&E activities
  • 3 The clear budget line for M&E
  • 4 Method of budgeting for M&E
  • 5 Form of M&E budget audit
  • 6 The frequency of M&E audit (internal and external controls)
  • 7 Scope of M&E
  • 8 Complexity of M&E
  • 9 Duration of M&E
  • 10 Source of funding for M&E
  • 11 M&E budget record-keeping
  • 12 Budgetary disbursement for M&E

Technical Capacity

1 The frequency of the M&E training

and Training

2 The content of the M&E training

Features (TC&TF)

  • 3 The planning process of the M&E training
  • 4 The education level of M the &E staff
  • 5 Level of the M&E training
  • 6 Form of the M&E training
  • 7 Staff expectation before the M&E training
  • 8 Staff level of involvement in M&E training
  • 9 Staff’s desire for the M&E training
  • 10 Management support for the M&E training

Monitoring and

1 The leadership style of the M&E team leader


2 The attitude of the M&E team leader

Leadership Features

3 The vision of the M&E team leader


  • 4 The commitment of the M&E team leader
  • 5 Traits (personality and behavioral) of the M&E team leader
  • 6 Managerial skills of the M&E team leader
  • 7 Gender of the M&E team leader
  • 8 Competencies of the M&E team leader
  • 9 The organizational environment for M&E
  • 10 Project environment for M&E
  • 11 Knowledge level of the M&E team leader
  • 12 Performance of the M&E team leader
  • 13 Communication style of the M&E team leader
  • 14 Interpersonal skills of the M&E team leader
  • (Continued)

80 Theories, models and concepts

Table 6.2 Latent variables and measuring constructs of the conceptual IME model (Continued)

Latent variable constructs Measurement variables

Monitoring and Evaluation Communication Features (M&ECF)

  • 1 Channel for communicating the M&E findings
  • 2 Reducing the distortion in the communication of the M&E findings
  • 3 Communicator (Sender) of the M&E findings
  • 4 The intended audience of the M&E findings
  • 5 The relevance of the M&E findings
  • 6 Effective communication skills amongst the M&E team
  • 7 Appropriate feedback channel for the M&E findings
  • 8 Access to the M&E information
  • 9 Proper reporting for M&E
  • 10 Proper communication structure for M&E
  • 11 Standardization of M&E documents
  • 12 Effective listening skills

IME model. The programme theory evaluates how well a programme or project is designed to achieve its intended outcomes. This helps emphasize on areas that need critical attention for effective M&E. Similarly, for M&E to be effectively undertaken, an understanding of what needs to be monitored and evaluated is a critical variable that demands attention. This will therefore require the development of the capacities of M&E staff and teams of an organization through training to achieve the relevant M&E competencies to achieve the object of the project. The theory of change rightly described the capacity development of M&E teams as articulating the underlying expectation of the M&E process. Another critical matter needing urgent attention for effective M&E is to ensure accountability of the M&E process. Also, a key aspect of the theory of change is the opportunity for organizations to communicate selected change processes to partners. Taplin et al. (2013) informed that the theory of change drives communication through the outcome pathways and narrative to stakeholders and builds core capacities for M&E. The combined theories underscore the variables’ stakeholder involvement, budgetary allocation, technical capacity and training, M&E communication and leadership conceived for the development of an IME model for construction project delivery.

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