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Emerging Pathogens at the Poles: Disease and International Trade Law

Trading in disease at the poles: The animal product in tradeTHE ANIMAL PRODUCT IN TRADEInternational trade and the SPS protocolAnimals and animal products as tradable productsCommodity versus product, animals as goodsHazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP): Trade into and out of the Arctic and AntarcticTrade into the Arctic and AntarcticTrade out of the Arctic and AntarcticTrade within the bordersUse of Article 6: Measures for endemic areasEmerging pathogeneses at the polesGENETIC PHYLOGENY AT THE POLESEmerging pathogeneses of the ArcticAntigenic variation in situVirulence factorsAnimal susceptibilityBreaking the Arctic faunal barrierEmerging pathogens of the AntarcticAntigenic variation in situVirulence factorsAnimal susceptibilityInfluences on emerging pathogens at the poles: Epidemiology of infectious diseaseClimate shiftMigrating animal species: Carriers, hosts, and vectorsBallast water from shipsFomite transfer and increased human activityLand use changeFailure of harmonisation of food safety standardsZOONOSES IN THE ARCTICzoonoses in the arcticApplying the SPS protocolSETTING THE STANDARDS: FOOD AND SAFETY STANDARDS FOR IMPORTATION AND EXPORTATIONInternational legal and policy instrumentsSTANDARDS ASSESSMENT: NAÏVE ENVIRONMENT OF THE POLESArticle 6: Endemism in the context of the polesArticles 6.1 and 6.2Article 6.3Necessary evidenceLikely to remain soArticle 2: The right to restrict tradeArticle 2.1Article 2.2To the extent necessaryBased on scientific principles and maintained with sufficient scientific evidenceArticle 2.2 and Article 5.7Article 2.2 and Articles 5.1, 5.2Article 2.2 and Article 5.6Article 2.3Not arbitrary or unjustifiably discriminatoryMexican avocados caseArticle 2.4: Understanding the exception under GATT Article XX (b)Article 5: Risk assessment, control and inspectionArticle 5.1Article 5.2Article 5.3Article 5.4Article 5.5Article 5.6Article 5.7Article 5.8RETURNING TO STANDARD-SETTING FOR THE ENDEMIC POLESA principled approach to technical trade barriers: Using a precautionary approachReturning to standard setting under the SPS AgreementArticle 3: Using stricter protocols – The problems with scientific evidence, technical knowledge and non-equivalenceArticle 3.2Article 3.3The issue of delayRegional versus international standardsTBT AgreementPSI AgreementArticle 4: The problem with equivalenceCooperation and governanceGLOBAL HEALTH STRATEGYGlobal health governance, infectious disease and sovereignty: Cooperation problemsWho’s Responsible? The issue of jurisdictionGovernance of the Arctic: Does the SPS have a role?Governance of the Antarctic: Can the SPS have a role?Surveillance systems for protection against pathogen importation in the Arctic and Antarctic

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