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Knowledge/Information transfer

Information is a most expensive and valuable production factor in the current environment. Information can be easily transferred and exchanged from one country to another. If a company has a chance to use knowledge and information then it means that it can adapt to this global changing. This issue is similar with the technology transfer issue in global markets. The rapid changing of the market requires also quick transfer of knowledge and efficient using of that knowledge and information.

Portfolio investment (Financial fund flows)

Globalisation encourages increased international portfolio investment. Additionally, financial markets have become increasingly open to international capital flows. For this reason, portfolio investment is one of the major problems of developing economies. It is almost the only way to increase liquidity of the markets and economies for emerging countries through attracting foreign funds. Significantly, this short term investment can dramatically impact on the financial markets. When the emerging economies have some problem in their country or investors make enough profit from their investment then these investors might leave the market. This would mean that market liquidity decreased and financial markets indicators plummet immediately.

Regulation/deregulation and international standards

Globalisation needs more regulation of the markets and economy. There are many new and complicated financial instruments and methods in the market and such instruments easily transfer and trade in other countries because of the globalisation effect. Every new system, instrument or tool requires new rules and regulations to determine its impact area. These regulations are also necessary to protect countries against global risks and crises. When the crisis comes out of one country then it influences other countries with trade channels and fund transfers, which we call the contagion effect. On the other hand, during globalisation the shares of big companies are trading in international stock markets and these companies have shareholders and stakeholders in many different countries. International rules and regulations offer protection particularly to small investors against the big scandals and other problems in companies, examples of which we have seen during the recent financial crisis.

International standards also regulate markets and economies by means of international principles and rules such as international accounting standards, international auditing standards. These aim to make corporate reporting standardized and comparable. So that is why the globalised world has more rules and more regulations and international standards than before.

Market integration

In fact globalisation leads to the conversion of many markets and economies into one market and economy. The aim of international standards and regulations is also to deregulate all these markets. The economy needs financial structures capable of handling the higher level of risk in the new economy. For this reason financial markets must be broad, deep, and liquid and at present only the U.S. financial markets are large enough to provide this financial structure in the world market. Global stock market projection and Pan-European stock market projection are part of this changing. There are many similar examples in the current situation for market integration which are also the result of increasing competition in the economy. Integration examples are prominent in company mergers and acquisitions as well.

Qualitative Intellectual capital mobility

Another effect of globalisation is human capital mobility through knowledge and information transfers. One of the reasons is that international/multinational companies have subsidiaries, partners and agencies in different countries. They need skilled and experienced international employees and rotation from country to country to provide appropriate international business practice. This changing also requires more skilled, well educated and movable employees who can adapt quickly to different market conditions.

Financial crisis-contagion effect-global crisis

Financial crises are mostly determined through globalisation and as a result of the globalisation impact. In fact, this is quite a true explanation. The financial world has witnessed a number of crises in recent years. Generally financial crises come out from international funds/capital flows (portfolio investments), lack of proper regulations and standards, complex financial instruments, rapid development of financial markets, asymmetric information and information transfers. One country crisis can turn into a global crisis with systemic risk effect. Systemic risk refers to a spreading financial crisis from one country to another country. In some cases, crises spread even between countries which do not appear to have any common economic fundamentals/problems. Previous global crises have also shown that one of the reasons for the crisis is unregulated markets.

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