Home Language & Literature
This chapter has extended the discussion of the developments in the beauty advertising landscape presented in Chapter 4 as it explored the changes in the nature of the cosmetic procedures marketed in the lifestyle magazines. The adverts for cosmetic procedures in the women’s magazines in particular display a clear shift away from marketing invasive procedures to promoting non-invasive, non-surgical procedures.
Building on previous literature, this chapter has considered themes that are generally prevalent in (beauty) advertising and has analysed these with regard to my corpus data. Although all of the themes - i.e. look good, feel good; technology and science; and the problem!solution format - are clearly present in the data, I have also presented discrepancies and have highlighted instances that appear to contradict findings from previous research.
Chapter 6 continues the discussion of themes present in the adverts for cosmetic procedures and (other) beauty products as it focuses on both the medical aspects and the commercial features present in the adverts. Moreover, the chapter introduces the discussion on the increasingly blurred boundary between medical interventions and (other) beauty products and services which will be explored in Chapter 7.
1 The notion of ‘self’ is problematic, as the idea of a unified, essential self has often been challenged. A full discussion of ideas of the ‘self’ falls outside of the scope of this book; see Allan (1997) and Seigel’s (2005) overview of ideas of the self in Western Europe since the 17th century.
15 In 2001, 10% (N=13) adverts promoted ‘natural ingredients or products’; this relative frequency remained the same in 2006 - i.e. also 10% (N=15) - before decreasingly slightly in 2010 (7%, N=8). In 2015, 10% (N=9) of the adverts referred to the theme.
Allan, K. (1997). The postmodern self: A theoretical consideration. Quarterly Journal of Ideology 20.1-2: 3-24.
Attwood, N. (2016, 8 August). Natural makeup and skincare: The rise of organic beauty products. The Independent.
BAAPS. (2015, 26 January). Tweak not tuck. London.
Bloch, M., &C Bloch, J. H. (1980). Women and the dialectics of nature in eighteenth-century French thought. In C. MacCormack, &c M. Strathern (Eds.), Nature, culture and gender (pp. 25-41). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cook, G. (2001). The discourse of advertising (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
Coupland, J. (2003). Ageist ideology and discourses of control in skincare product marketing. In J. Coupland, & R. Gwyn (Eds.), Discourse, the Body and Identity (pp. 127-150). Basingstoke: Palgrave.
Coupland, J. (2007). Gendered discourse on the ‘problem’ of ageing: Consumerized solutions. Discourse & Communication 1.1: 37-61. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 1750481307071984
Coupland, J. (2009). Time, the body and the reversibility of ageing: Commodifying the decade. Ageing & Society 29: 953-976. https://doi.org/10.1017/ S0144686X09008794
Engle, V. (Producer), & Engle, V. (Director). (2015, 20 April). Inside Harley Street 2: Make me beautiful. [Video/DVD] BBC2.
Fraser, S. (2001). Women-made women: Mobilisations of nature in feminist accounts of cosmetic surgery. Hecate 27.2: 115-132.
Fraser, S. (2003). Cosmetic surgery, gender and culture. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Griffiths, J. (Ed.). (2006). Men’s toiletries and fragrances (4th ed.) Key Note Market Assessment.
Haiken, E. (1997). Venus entry: A history of cosmetic surgery. Baltimore: John Flopkins University Press.
Harris-Moore, D. (2014). Media and the rhetoric of body perfection: Cosmetic surgery, weight loss and beauty in popular culture. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.
Harrison, C. (2008). Real men do wear mascara: Advertising discourse and masculine identity. Critical Discourse Studies 5.1: 55-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 17405900701768638
Hurd Clarke, L., 5c Griffin, M. (2007). The body natural and the body unnatural: Beauty work and ageing. Journal of Aging Studies 21: 187-201. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jaging.2006.11.001
Jankowski, G. S., Fawkner, H., Slater, A., &Tiggemann, M. (2014). ‘Appearance potent’? A content analysis of UK gay and straight men’s magazines. Body Image 11.4: 474-481. https://doi.Org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.07.010
Jones, M. (2008). Skintight: An anatomy of cosmetic surgery. King’s Lynn: Berg.
Keogh, S. B., Halpin, X, Leonard, R., Vallance-Owen, A., Kennedy, S. I., Parry, V., et al. (2013). Review of the regulation of cosmetic interventions: Final report. Department of Health.
Lazar, M. M. (2006). Discover the power of femininity: Analyzing global ‘power femininity’ in local advertising. Feminist Media Studies 6.4: 505-517. https:// doi.org/10.1080/14680770600990002
Machin, D., & Thornborrow, J. (2003). Branding and discourse: The case of Cosmopolitan. Discourse and Society 14.4: 453^171.
Machin, D., & Van Leeuwen, T. (2005). Language style and lifestyle: The case of a global magazine. Media, Culture and Society 27.4: 577-600. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/0957926503014004003
Mendelson, D. B. (2013). In your face: The hidden history of plastic surgery and why looks matter. London: Hardie Grant Books Australia.
Mintel. (2018). Beauty & personal care: Global trends 2018. London: Mintel.
Moran, C., 6c Lee, C. (2013). Selling genital cosmetic surgery to healthy women: A multimodal discourse analysis of Australian surgical websites. Critical Discourse Studies, 10.4: 373-391. https://doi.org/10.1080/17405904.
Ringrow, H. (2016). The language of cosmetics advertising. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Russo, G. (2018, 28 February). Dermatologists say you should actually start using anti-ageing products in your 20s - here’s what they recommend. Insider.
Seigel, J. (2005). The idea of the self: Thought and experience in Western Europe since the seventeenth century. New York: Cambridge University Press.
The Committee of Advertising Practice. (2016). Use of production techniques in cosmetic advertising. Help Note. Committee of Advertising Practice (CAP); Broadcast Committee of Advertising Practice (BCAP).
Vestergaard, X, 6C Schroder, K. (1985). The language of advertising. London: Blackwell.
WARC. (2015). How men shop for personal grooming products. Gfk (March).
Williams, R. (1983). Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society. New York: Oxford University Press.