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Mycoremediation

The use of fungi to degrade or remediate contaminants is known as mycoremediation. Yeast and fungi are unique in metal biosorption, and this process is known as mycosorption. Trichodenna viride, for example, can be used to remove Cd and Pb from aqueous media (Sahu, Asha et al. 2012). Trichodenna asperelhnn and Trichodenna viride can remove arsenic from liquid media through biovolatilization in laboratory conditions (Srivastava et al. 2011). Trichodenna asperelhnn, T. harzianum, and T. tomentosum were studied for removing Cd under different pH conditions. Saccharomyces cerevisiae removed 65-79 percent heavy metals like lead and cadmium from contaminated soil by biosorption process within 30 days (Damodaran et al. 2011). Mucor hiemalis, an effective fungus, was shown for bioremediation of pharmaceutical xenobiotics, e.g., acetaminophen (Esterhuizen- Loudt et al. 2016). During the inoculation of mycelia from oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) in soil contaminated with diesel oil, it was found that after 4 weeks, 95 percent PAHs had been convened to nontoxic compounds and finally to CO, and H,0 (Rhodes 2014).

The marine fungi Corollospora lacera and Monodictyspelagica have been observed to accumulate lead and cadmium extracellulariy in mycelia, respectively (Taboski et al. 2005). Fan et al. (2008) reported efficiency of P. simplicissimum to remove Cd (II), Zn (II) and Pb (II) from aqueous solutions. Fluorine degradation by P. italicum in the presence of several cyclodextrins was reported by Garon et al. (2004). Efficient degradation of a potentially toxic synthetic dye like Remazol brilliant bine R, by use of marine-derived fungus TinctoporeUus sp. CBMAI 1061, was revealed by Bouugli-Santos et al. (2012).

Hexavalent chromium removal efficiency of three marine aspergilla such as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus xventii, and Aspergillus terreus, isolated from Gujarat coast, have been investigated by Kliambhaty et al. (2009) and reported Aspergillus niger as the best among the three. Bioaccumulation of arsenic was also observed in both fungi, viz. Aspergillus flavus and Rlrizopus sp. and results showed Rlrizopus sp. to be a better accumulator (Vala and Sutariya 2012). Aspergillus sydowii has been considered as a potential candidate for arsenic bioremediation because of volatilization of

15.75 percent of supplied As (III) via., biovolatilization process (Vala 2017). Marine-derived fungi have been observed as efficient microbes for bioremediation of various pollutants.

Rhizoremediation (Plant and microbe interaction)

The rhizospheric breakdown of soil contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides, petroleum products, fly ash, herbicides, etc., through plant roots in association with microbes is known as rhizoremediation. The root exudates stimulate micro-organisms' population in the soil, which subsequently degrade pollutants (Kuiper et al. 2004). The success of rhizoremediation is dependent on plant and microbe interaction.

Some plants like Vetiveria zizanioides, Phragmites, Sacharum, etc. have extensive root systems which make plants most efficient for rhizoremediation. Vetiver has been observed to be efficient in remediating Pb and Zn (Antiochia et al. 2007) and 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene from soil amended with urea (Das et al. 2010) as well as plieuolics (Phenrat et al. 2017). Phragniitesaustralis in association with bacteria was capable of remediating 4-n-butylphenol (Toyama et al. 2011). Abou-Slianab et al. (2003) investigated the effect of Microbacterium liquefaciens, Spliingomonas macrogoltabidus and Microbacterium arabinogalactanolyticuni on the rhizospheric zone of Alyssuni murale and found 17, 24, and 32.4% magnified uptake of nickel, respectively, into the shoot and leaves as compared to control. The different plants and associated microbes which remediate the heavy metal contaminants from soil are presented in Table 2.

Table 2. List of plants and associated microbes to remediate contammants.

Plant

Microbes

Contaminants

References

Brassica juncea

Sinorhizobium sp.

Lead

Di Gregorio et al. (2006)

Ricinus communis

Pseudomonas jessenii

Zinc, nickel, copper

Rajkumar and Freitas (2008)

Lycopersicum esculentum

Burkholderia sp.

Lead

Jiang et al. (2008)

Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Amaranthus Mangostanus, and Solamim nigrum

Rahnella sp.

Cadmium

Yuan et al. (2014)

Oiyza sariva L

Brevundimonas diminuta

Arsenic

Singh et al. (2016)

Sedum plumbizincicola

Bacillus sp. SC2b

Lead, zmc

Ma et al. (2015)

Oiyza sariva L. seedlmg

Kocuria flava AB402 and Bacillus vietnamensis AB403

Arsenic

Mallicketal. (2018)

Brassica nigra

Microbacterium sp. CE3R2, Microbacterium sp. NE1R5, Curtobacterium sp. NM1R1, and Microbacterium sp. NM3E9

Arsenic, Zinc

Roman-Ponce et al. (2017)

Brassica napus L.

Pantoea agglomerans

Zn, Cu and Cd Biodiesel

Zhang et al. (2011), Lacalle et al. (2018)

 
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