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Case study

Arsenic resisting and metabolizing microorganisms isolated from various ecosystems are employed to remediate arsenic polluted soil and water. Reports from India earned out by Mondal et al. in 2014 documented both ex situ and in situ decontamination of petroleum hydrocarbons from contaminated soils using microbes. Rate of bioremediation was found to be depending on initial oil content of the sample, and geo-climatic parameters. Oil degrading microbial consortia were produced in a bioreactor and mixed in the soil of both the sites. For ex situ experiment, high density polyethylene lined were used for ex situ application, where oily wastes collected from oil fields were dumped at the site. Aeration and moisture were maintained during the experimentations. The used microbial consortia was prepared from the microbial straining previously collected from the oil-contaminated sites and screened based on then ability to degrade TPH components of oily waste. After the treatment, oily waste and ground water near the experimental sites were tested at regular interval for TPH. pH and heavy metals. Results showed a decrease of TPH content of 57.50-62.70 g/kg to

0.50 to 57.10 g/kg waste within a period of 2 to 12 months. The role of biodegradation was found to be 0.07-1.93 kg TPH/day/m: area. Heavy metals present in oily waste have no impact on the process of bioremediation.

Successfril bioremediation using switchgrass (Panicum virgutam) and plant associated microbes has been made in Pb and Cd polluted soils by Arora et al. (2016) from India. Both AM fungi and Azospirillum were taken as plant associated microbes. Experiment was conducted in pot using different concentrations of Pb and Cd. Results showed a shift in soil pH towards neutral with AMF and Azospirilhnn inoculations. An increased root length, branches surface area, along with both root and shoot biomass of switchgrass, were also noted. The calculated bioconcentration factor (BCF) for Pb (12 mg kg-1) and Cd (10 mg kg-1) was found to be 0.25 and 0.23, respectively, whereas translocation index (TI) obtained was 17.8 and 16.7, respectively, which was approximately 45% higher than control. The lower values of BCF and TI even at the highest concentration of Pb and Cd revealed the capacity of switchgr ass for accumulating high concentration of Pb and Cd in roots, while preventing the translocation of Pb and Cd to aerial biomass.

Conclusion

Different ecological tools are found effective in remediating the polluted soil. Significant efforts are needed to apply these ecological tools at pilot scale.

Future prospective

Mechanism of heavy metal retention, availability and subsequent assimilation of retained heavy metal is essential by materials like biochar and humic substances not only for development of cheaper ecological tools but also for future safety of the planet. Simultaneously, emphasis should be made on molecular biology to optimize the screened bioremediation process. Social aspect such as employment generation should be emphasized during planning of any bioremediatiou method which will not only attract attention from all sections of the society but also help in sustainable use of resources for conducting bioremediation activities without affecting the economy of a region. Thus, future strategy of bioremediation needs a broader vision for treating polluted soils along with sustaining soil health for benefit of the humanity.

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