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Finance for Food





I: The Big Picture: Global Trends Affecting Agricultural FinanceGlobal Dynamics in Agricultural and Rural Economy, and Its Effects on Rural FinanceWhat's New in Agricultural and Rural Environment?Mega-Trends Impacting the Rural EconomyMega-Trends Impacting the Agricultural EconomyMega-Trend Impacting Both Agricultural and Rural EconomyEmerging Models in Agricultural and Rural FinanceDefinitions and Lessons from the Old Agricultural FinanceModern Rural Finance: An Emerging Model Drawing from Microfinance Best PracticesValue Chain Financing, Borrowing from Private Sector Financial Services to Small and Medium FarmersPotential Impact of New Agricultural and Rural Finance and Role of Major StakeholdersPotential Impact at Micro, Meso and Macro LevelsRoles of Governments (Central and Local), Donors and Private Players in Supporting the New Agricultural and Rural FinanceRole for DonorsReferencesPublications on Value Chain FinancingFood Security and a Holistic Finance for Rural MarketsCommercialisation of Farming as an OpportunityThe Cross-Cutting Relevance of Transport InfrastructureFood Which Is Never ProducedPost-harvest Losses as a Critical Factor for Food SecurityPost-harvest Losses as a Factor for Farm IncomeEfficiently Organised Value Chains Can Reduce Post-Harvest LossesThe (Potential) Contribution of the Financial SectorConclusionReferencesII: Institutional and Process Innovations in Serving Rural ClientsFinance Through Food and Commodity Value Chains in a Globalized EconomyIntroductionIncreased Importance of Value ChainsOrganization and Structure of Value ChainsIncreasing Public and Private StandardsIncreasing Consolidation in Processing and RetailVertical Coordination and Value Chain FinanceSmall Farmer Participation in Value ChainsSmall Farmer Inclusion and GovernanceValue Chain Finance Models of Private Sector VCFTrade CreditInterlinked Contract-FarmingLoan Guarantee ProgramsSpecial Purpose VehiclesWarehouse Receipt Finance Importance of VCFImpact of VCF on Productivity, Quality and OutputPolicy IssuesReferencesAgricultural Growth Corridors – Unlocking Rural Potential, Catalyzing Economic DevelopmentGlobal ChallengesAfrican AgricultureAfrican ChallengesPolitical SupportAfrican Green RevolutionAfrican PotentialValue ChainsGrowth CorridorsCorridor ClustersCorridors EstablishedThe BAGCThe SAGCOTCapital RequirementsAgro-IndustriesRegional IntegrationInfrastructure BackboneInvestment OpportunityGrow AfricaConclusionReferencesInnovative Microfinance: Potential for Serving Rural Markets SustainablyAgricultural and Rural MicrofinanceDefinitionsThe Subsidized Agricultural Credit ParadigmThe Financial Systems ApproachMicrofinance Serving Agriculture and Rural AreasReasons for MFIs Expanding into Rural AreasRequired Adjustments in Methodology: Becoming Client OrientedSuccessful MFIs Rerving Rural Areas and AgricultureMember-Owned MFIs in Agricultural and Rural FinanceFour Cooperative NetworksStrengthening Rural Financial CooperativesThe Role of Donors and DFIs in Overcoming BarriersPolitical Interventions and Interest Rate CeilingsSubsidize Institutions and Public GoodsSupporting NetworksRisk MitigationMeasure and EvaluateReferencesBusting Agro-Lending Myths and Back to Banking Basics: A Case Study of AccessBank's Agricultural LendingGreenfield Small Business Bank in a Transitional EconomyLack of Agricultural FinanceTypical Reservations Against Lending to FarmersLaunch of Agro Loan ProductResults After Introducing the Dedicated Agro Loan ProductAgro Loan Product Drives Regional Bank Expansion and Access to Financial ServicesAgro Loans Providing Stability During CrisisBusting Agro-MythsRisk Management ApproachConclusionReferencesIII: Dealing with Risks in Agricultural FinanceWhere Is the Risk? Is Agricultural Banking Really More Difficult than Other Sectors?IntroductionRisks in Agricultural FinanceDefinitions and Classifications of RisksPrincipal Credit RisksSpecific Risks in AgriculturePolitical RisksEmpirical Evidence on Actual RisksApproaches to Risk Management in Agricultural FinanceManaging Principal Credit RisksApproaches to Manage the Specific Risks in AgriculturePolitical Risks Remain a ChallengeImplications and Perspectives for Agricultural FinanceTowards a Hybrid Model of Agricultural MicrofinanceInnovative Insurance Instruments Need Further Study and DevelopmentDiversification to Remain a Core Element of Risk ManagementImprovements in Legal Framework and Financial InfrastructureThe Role of Government and DonorsConcluding RemarksAppendix 1: Segmentation of Agricultural RisksAppendix 2: Features of a Hybrid Model of Agricultural MicrofinanceReferencesThe Potential of Structured Finance to Foster Agricultural Lending in Developing CountriesIntroductionConcept of Structured FinanceRisk-Based Differentiation Between Agricultural and Rural FinanceInvestors' Channels to Finance AgricultureAgricultural Value Chain FinanceAgricultural Risks and Risk Management StrategiesClassification of Agricultural RisksRisk Management Strategies and the Role of Structured FinanceApplication of Structured Finance in Agricultural LendingAgricultural Portfolio GuaranteesAre Agricultural Portfolio Guarantees an Appropriate Tool?How Innovative Agriculture-Specific Guarantees Could Look(No) Securitization in Agricultural FinanceStructured Funds Investing in Rural FinanceFinance Structures in Value Chain FinanceReceivables-Backed FinanceWarehouse Receipts FinanceForward Contracts, Futures and OptionsContract FarmingSummaryConcluding RemarksReferencesWebsitesNew Approaches to Agricultural Insurance in Developing EconomiesEx-ante Versus Ex-post Risk Management SolutionsFirst Considerations When Setting Up Agricultural Insurance: System Approach Before Product ApproachSystemAgro: Framework and Structural Aspects of Agricultural Insurance SystemsOperational Aspects of Agricultural Insurance SystemsInsurance Products and the Overestimated Potential of Weather Trigger PoliciesPortfolio Management and UnderwritingDistributionLoss Management and Loss AdjustmentAdministration and Data ManagementInnovation: The Driving Force in All Development PhasesCurrent Status and OutlookExchange RatesReferencesIV: Using Modern Technology for High-Quality Services in Rural AreasReaching the Client in Geographically Adverse Conditions: Can Outsourcing Increase Effectiveness and Efficiency?IntroductionProviding Financial Services to Remote Rural Areas: Specific Constraints and CostsWhat Are the Constraints Faced in Remote Rural Areas?What Is the Impact of Rural Finance on Cost Structures?Increasing Outreach Through Branchless BankingBranchless Banking: Banks' Internal SolutionsBranchless Banking: How ICT Boosted Outsourcing PossibilitiesBranchless Banking: Different Types of PartnershipsSetting Up a Bank-Led Mobile Banking SystemConclusionsImplications of Outsourcing on a Bank's OperationsWhen Should a Bank Contemplate Launching a Mobile Banking System?The Role of Government and DonorsReferencesTameer Bank's Experiences with Mobile BankingAccess to Finance: The Case of PakistanMobile Penetration: Anywhere and EverywhereMobile Banking: Differentiated and Low CostTameer-Telenor PartnershipEasyPaisa: Story So Far and Way AheadReferencesPoverty-Sensitive Scorecards to Prioritize Lending and Grant Allocation with an Application in Central AmericaIntroductionBuilding a ScorecardRisk ScorecardPoverty ScorecardAn Application to a Grant Competition in Central AmericaDetails of the Program in Central AmericaRisk ScoringPoverty ScoringConcluding RemarksReferences
 
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