The Effect of Alcohol on NAD+ Levels and Markers for Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
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Figure 14.3 shows that alcohol consumption greater than one drink/day decreases levels of NAD+ in the brain and increases inflammation as measured by readings of cerebrospinal fluid. With an intake greater than one alcoholic drink/day, average cerebrospinal NAD+ levels begin to drop, while cerebrospinal fluid levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is a marker for inflammation, begin to rise. Alcohol’s effect on both NAD+ levels and inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid is likely reflective of NAD+ activity in the brain.
NAD+’s Effectiveness at Reducing Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Levels in Addiction Patients
Figure 14.4 shows the results of a pilot study that compared NAD+ plasma levels in 30 healthy participants with NAD+ plasma levels in 26 alcohol patients and 19 opiate patients, matched by age and gender. At the study’s outset, levels of 8-isoprostane, a biomarker for oxidative stress, are higher in the addiction patients—both the alcohol and the opiate patients. After four days of intravenous BR+NAD™ therapy, another reading of plasma levels begins showing a dramatic reduction in the
FIGURE 14.3 Alcohol consumption.
FIGURE 14.4 Plasma 8-isoprostane following IV BR+NAD™ therapy.
oxidative stress marker in both the alcohol patients and the opiate patients. For opiate patients, the levels of 8-isoprostane continue to drop all the way to the last day of treatment, while the decline of the oxidative stress marker tends to level off after Day 8, 9, or 10. This is a significant finding that warrants further research.
Intravenous NAD+ Infusion Reduces a Second Marker for Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Addiction Patients
The results from this pilot study show that levels of plasma TNF-alpha, a biomarker for inflammation and oxidative stress, are higher in alcohol and opiate patients than in healthy patients, and higher in alcohol patients than opiate patients (Figure 14.5).
It also shows that TNF-alpha levels respond positively following 4 days of intravenous BR+NAD™ therapy. The slide also indicates that for alcohol patients the drop in TNF-alpha tends to level off by the third draw, which is on Day 8, 9, or 10. In the opiate patients, however, we see a continued drop in TNF-alpha on the third draw, which is at the end of the BR+NAD™ treatment. It’s interesting that, here again, we see two different patterns of reduction, which is seen in the 8-isoprostane level drops. In both cases, we’ve shown that intravenous NAD+ does help reduce markers of inflammation.
Intravenous BR+NADТМ Infusions Increase the NAD+/NADH Ratio in Alcohol Abuse Patients
Figure 14.6 again shows pilot data of the response to intravenous BR+NAD™ in 19 subjects treated for alcohol abuse. What’s significant in this diagram, in addition to the rise in NAD+ plasma levels after 4 days of treatment, is a higher NAD+/NADH ratio, which suggests that better utilization of NAD+ will occur. Again, this warrants additional research to be followed up in clinical trials.
Intravenous BR+NADТМ Infusions Increase the NAD+/NADH Ratio in Patients Addicted to Opiates
As in the previous diagram, Figure 14.7 shows pilot data of the response to intravenous BR+NAD™ for 17 subjects treated for opiate addiction. After 4 days of intravenous BR+NAD+™ treatment,
FIGURE 14.5 Plasma TNF-alpha following IV BR+NAD™ therapy.
FIGURE 14.6 Response to intravenous BR+NAD™ therapy in subjects treated for alcohol abuse. (n=19 subjects.)
FIGURE 14.7 Response to intravenous BR+NAD™ therapy in subjects treated for opiate abuse. (n=17 subjects.)
NAD+ levels have risen in plasma; NADH levels have dropped; and the ratio of NAD+/NADH has increased, which we believe is significant. Again, this is unpublished pilot data, which could be used to design a more comprehensive study.
Establishing Baseline NAD+ Levels
Yet another study undertaken at NAD Research Inc., in collaboration with the Australasian Research Institute, investigated the pharmacokinetic dynamics of intravenous NAD+ in 15 healthy males age 35-55.18 This was an IRB-approved, double-blind, placebo-controlled pharmacokinetic study to establish baseline data on the metabolism of NAD+ in healthy individuals. This information will enable us to more readily determine when NAD+ levels are deficient in others. The study included 11 healthy males who were given intravenous NAD+ and 4 who were administered saline solution. Subjects’ blood levels of NAD+ and its metabolites were monitored over time. The study’s final conclusions were that: