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Advances in Clean Energy: Production and Application

Global Energy Sources and Present Energy ScenarioIntroductionBrief History of Fossil FuelsCoalPetrol and DieselNatural GasOther Fossil FuelsRenewable Energy Sources – BiomassWhat Is Biomass?Biomass FeedstocksEdible CropsNon-Edible CropsLignocellulosic Biomass WasteGlobal Energy Needs – Present and FutureIndian Energy Needs – Present and FutureClimate ChangeConclusionReferencesBiodiesel Production Techniques – The State of the ArtIntroductionCatalyst in TransesterificationHomogeneous CatalystAcid CatalystBase CatalystHeterogeneous CatalystAcid CatalystBase CatalystEnzymatic CatalystCo-Solvent TransesterificationMicrowave-Assisted TransesterificationUltrasound-Assisted TransesterificationNon-Catalytic Supercritical Methanol TransesterificationPurification of BiodieselConclusionReferencesPhysicochemical and Thermal Properties of BiodieselIntroductionAcid ValueSaponification ValueIodine ValueCetane NumberCloud and Pour PointCold Filter Plugging PointKinematic ViscosityDensityCarbon ResidueCopper Strip CorrosionFlash and Fire PointSulfur ContentMetal ContentMethanol ContentPhosphorus ContentFree Glycerol and Total GlycerinMono-, Di-, and TriglyceridesEster ContentLubricityOxidation StabilityThermal BehaviorConclusionReferencesEffect of Biodiesel and Additives on Diesel Engine Efficiency and EmissionIntroductionMetal Additives and Their DrawbacksLower Alcohol AdditivesHigher Alcohol AdditivesConclusionReferencesRecent Advanced Injection Strategy on Biodiesel CombustionIntroductionSingle Injection on CRDI-Assisted Diesel EngineSplit Injection StrategyMultiple Injection StrategyCombination of Split Injection and EGR on Biodiesel CombustionConclusionReferencesLow-Temperature Combustion Technology on Biodiesel CombustionIntroductionHistory and Different Methods Used for Emission ReductionBlending with DieselExhaust Gas Recirculation SystemWater InjectionEmulsion TechnologyCombustion Geometry ModificationDifferent Nozzle Opening Pressure and TimingEffect of Fuel Injection TimingEffect of Fuel Injection Pressure (FIP) or Nozzle Opening Pressure (NOP)Influence of Fuel Injection Timing and Fuel Injection Pressure (FIP) on the Spray CharacteristicsLow-Temperature Combustion (LTC)Different Methods for Attaining LTCImportance of Advanced Injection Strategy in the LTCEffect of Higher Injection Pressure in the Electronic Injection StrategyEffect of Split Injection StrategyHomogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI)Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI)Partially Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PPCI)Reactive Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI)A Fundamental Concept of RCCIImportance of Fuel ReactivityLow Reactive Fuel ManagementBiofuels Used in the RCCI CombustionSingle-Fuel RCCI CombustionLow-Temperature Combustion Advantages and ChallengesHigh-Efficiency Clean CombustionConclusionReferencesSolid Waste ManagementIntroductionWaste Quantities and CharacterizationStorage and Collection of Solid WastesFacilities for Materials Recovery and RecyclingHealth and Safety RisksEnvironmental PollutionDifferent Technologies for Solid Waste ManagementFuture Solid Waste Management PolicyConclusionReferencesAssessment of Physicochemical Properties and Analytical Characterization of Lignocellulosic BiomassIntroductionLignocellulosic Biomass Feedstocks Available for Energy PurposesChoice of Pre-Treatment Based on Biomass TypesPhysicochemical Properties of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Engineering ApplicationsDensityFlowabilityParticle SizeMoisture SorptionThermal PropertiesChemical PropertiesProximate AnalysisUltimate AnalysisEnergy ContentCompositional AnalysisAn Assessment of the Sustainability of Lignocellulosic Biomass for BiorefiningLignocellulosic Feedstocks for Energy and Economic SustainabilityBiofuels and Food SecurityLife Cycle Assessment of Lignocellulosic Biomass and BiofuelsConclusionsReferencesLignocellulosic Biomass Conversion into Second- and Third-Generation BiofuelsIntroductionEnergy Security and Greenhouse Emission vs BiofuelBioenergy around the GlobeBiomass GasificationGasification ChemistryGasifying MediumEquivalence RatioGasifier TemperatureGasifier DesignFixed Bed GasifiersUpdraft GasifierThe Calculation for Reactor Diameter (D)The Calculation for Height (H)The Calculation for Airflow Rate (AFR)Downdraft GasifierCross Draft GasifierFluidized Bed GasifierGas Cleaning and CoolingCleaning Dust from the GasTar CrackingAlcohol ProductionThermodynamics of Bio-Methanol SynthesisUnique Higher Alcohol SynthesisApplication of Biofuel in Fuel CellsLCA on Biofuel ProductionConclusionReferencesThe Microbiology Associated with Biogas Production ProcessIntroductionThe Microbiology Associated with the Biogas Production ProcessFunctioning and Growth of MicroorganismsEnvironmental FactorsBreakdown of Organic CompoundsThe Importance of Technology to MicrobiologyStart-Up of a Biogas ProcessProcess DesignImportant Operating ParametersSubstratesToxicityMonitoring and Evaluation of the Biogas Production ProcessMonitoring Involved in the Biogas ProcessProcess EfficiencyThe Digested ResiduesConclusionReferencesCurrent Status and Perspectives of Biogas Upgrading and UtilizationIntroductionNeed for Biogas UpgradationTechnologies Involved in Biogas UpgradingAbsorptionPhysical Absorption Method Using Water Scrubbing SystemPhysical Absorption Method Using Organic SolventsChemical Absorption Method Using Amine SolutionsPressure Swing Adsorption (PSA)Membrane SeparationCryogenic Separation ProcessChemical Hydrogenation ProcessChemoautotrophic MethodsIn situ Biological Biogas UpgradingEx situ Biological Biogas UpgradingMicrobial Communities in Biological Biogas Upgrading SystemsPhotoautotrophic MethodsBiogas Upgrading through Other Fermentation ProcessesBiogas Upgrading through Microbial Electrochemical MethodsBiogas Upgradation Technologies under DevelopmentComparative Analysis of the Various Biogas Upgradation TechnologiesFuture Perspectives on Biogas UpgradationMoving towards Hybrid Upgradation TechnologiesUtilization of Methane Available in Off-GasMaking Small-Scale Upgrading Plants EconomicalSupport PoliciesConclusionReferences

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