Table of Contents:
I: Review Papers
Developments of Health Care: A Brief History of Medicine
P. MEREENA LUKE,12 K. R. DHANYA,1 TOMY MURINGAYIL JOSEPH,3 JOZEF T. HAPONIUK,2 DIDIER ROUXEL,4 and S. THOMAS1
Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk, Poland
3Research Scholar, Chemical Faculty, Polymers Technology Department, Gdansk University of Technology, Gdansk - 80233, Poland,
4Institute Jean Lamour, Universite de Lorraine/UMR-CNRS 7198,
Nancy Cedex - 50840-54011, France
This chapter focusing the important areas in the history of medicine discusses additional investigation of facts, and concepts that influenced clinical practice in past decades and in contemporary clinical practices. This chapter also highlighting the medical traditions and cultures of various societies around the world, as well as the excellent work of renowned scientists and physicians who have contributed to our existing knowledge of medicine, diagnosis, treatments and even health.
Disease and injury are as old as mankind; the people in the ancient period strongly believed that the diseases may be due to the natural or the supernatural causes such as the wrath of the Gods, natural causes, and the imbalances within the human body . At this time the people’s convictions about the causes of disease was purely based on superstitious. The rituals and magic spells were used to deflect sickness. The historical evidences from the stone ages support the proofs of various diseases such as smallpox, arthritis, inflammations, dental defects, leprosy, bone tumors, scurvy, and tuberculosis (ТВ), etc., and also it brings out the evidences that there were attempt for treating diseases and injuries .
The invention of the microscope led to the discovery of microorganisms and finally identified as the source of infectious diseases . Detection of the particular microorganism causing a disease leads to vaccination or immunization against the infectious disease . Modern surgery developed only after the permission of human dissection and it made tremendous awareness to human anatomy physiology and circulatory system . Eventually, the need for modern anesthesia and antiseptic practices were raised. The discovery of x-rays and the development of medical scanners led to Modern diagnostic practices . Present medicine is much more advanced than ancient medicine in terms of scientific knowledge. Contribution of each invention or discovery and improved technologies led to significant progress in the field of advanced healthcare thus it is possible to identify the causes of disease, provide the proper diagnosis, suitable treatments, and also to evaluate the efficacy of treatments. The technological advances and the modern studies being carried out around the world make medicine a more advanced industiy . Traditional medicine systems have always played a major part in global health care needs. Presently, it proceeds to do so and will also play a significant role in the future. Diseases, medicine, and treatments are quite familiar today. It can be seen that medicine as science, research, and practice and it covers diagnosis, treatment, and preserving one’s health and life thr ough suitable medication. This Chapter outlines the importance of medical advances throughout history and how modern medicine developed and improved methods of diagnosis.