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The IoT Relationship in the Supply Chain During Disaster

IoT can be applied throughout the supply chain, bringing benefits to the various logistical functions such as storage, inventory management, transportation, meeting demand, and customer service, for example. IoT resources can help promote a digital ecosystem of connected systems, providing users with relevant and up-to-date data to make a more accurate decision at any given time. These benefits range from reducing costs by reducing waste, reducing resource consumption, and better use of assets to improving the service level by adding time, place, quality, and information [40].

IoT enables a new level of operational efficiency, in addition to creating leverage automation and IoT solutions for intelligent manufacturing operations to mitigate the dependence on labor-intensive processes made possible by digital technology, allowing the standardization of daily work and assisting it, relieving the pressure of relying on specific individuals to make an operation work [40].

The idea of the Intelligent Supply Chain is yesterday a digital perception and vision through the IoT regarding environmental crimes, minor and moderate disasters, such as floods, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes and social losses, which forces the optimization of the Supply Chain requiring an independent preparation in relation to climate and natural disasters. With recent weather patterns too unusual around the world, companies need to assess the risk of downtime and interruptions by updating their risk management strategies to deal with global climate change [41].

After all, through the virtualization of processes and automation brought by IoT, it is possible to completely transform the production process, in a short time, since these practices together with environmental responsibility and concern for the customer create a network of strategies to optimize the process productive, reducing losses, failures, and negative impacts [41].

IoT and visual recognition technology through installed sensors are able to better manage demand in refrigerators installed in convenience stores, restaurants, and supermarkets, since it is possible to increase the visibility of the inventory and to respond better to an event such as the coronavirus outbreak. COVID-19 currently plaguing the world, even though distributors cannot provide forecasts [42-44].

Considering that logistics in crises is an area applicable in situations of disasters and catastrophes, in which the strategic objectives of the supply chain, classically aimed at reducing operating costs and investments together with improving the service level, in a context emergency, seeks to maximize the service level with the shortest possible delivery times. Considering IoT-based business intelligence related to the fleet of vehicles, sensors, equipment, cameras, and many other “things” exchanging information in real time [45,46].

Since the ability through IoT technology to integrate all this data, and transform it into intelligence with Data Analytics tools, for example, is that it guarantees the efficiency of the logistics chain, reducing costs, making routes more flexible, among other actions that generate more value for the business. Bearing in mind that modern supply chains are vulnerable to natural disasters, weather, which causes transport delays and unexpected quality problems that can interrupt the flow of cargo, generating short-term costs, and delivery challenges, which can be circumvented by IoT, AI through sensors, drones, and other autonomous devices, which made the logistics area a change to a strategic and no longer operational role in companies [47].

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