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Future Trends

The connectivity of IoT devices will reach its full potential when 5G technologies allow high speed and low latency, where 5G will make IoT much more efficient and effective considering a spectrum of efficiency where each device and network created based on this technology it will use only what is necessary and when it is necessary, in the exact measure [64].

As well as the ‘NarrowBand’-IoT (also known as LTE-M2) that provides long-range coverage with low battery consumption for devices that are present in all day-to-day environments, where it is considered the driver of communications current and future wireless, with narrowband specification (NB-IoT) as a new physical layer, whose application offers and shows the ease of making measurements with sensors using LPWAN technology that does not operate in the licensed LTE construction. Operating in ways independent of the unused 200kHz bands that were previously used for GSM (Global Mobile Communications System), on LTE base stations, a block of resources is allocated for NB-IoT operations or in their guard bands [65].

Since IoT works only when devices are connected to the internet, in this sense, the importance of 5G for the advancement of IoT in the coming years is fundamental, being the first network planned to operate with a response time n times shorter than the network 4G, and with low latency, 5G is the solution to more efficiently connect programmed appliances, autonomous cars, the most diverse types of sensors, among countless other possibilities, so 5G appears as a solution capable of absorbing simultaneous connections, efficiently and with less energy consumption, being a network programmed to respond in real time, in addition to being scalable and versatile [47,64].

The evolution of technologies such as IoT, big data, wearables, in addition to the increase in the use of mobile devices has required a greater performance of the internet, and the connection to the web, however, has not yet reached its full potential, which 5G broadband will provide more stability and more capacity to meet the needs of mobile users, leading the Internet to tend to become increasingly faster to meet these new demands that are emerging over the years with respect to IoT devices [66].

With the fifth generation of wireless technology (5G), it will reach the IoT revolution, evolving and enabling the entire context and management of devices with a focus on disaster management, enabling their link and even greater creation of interconnected and intelligent cities, since the new network tends to respond to critical needs, which need extremely short response times [67].

However, although the advantages are many, with the increase in requirements coming from 5G and the densification of the network, the security problems inherited from previous generations will become more complex, one of them can be related to authentication which is an essential operation in mobile networks requiring hundreds of milliseconds to be performed; however small that time may seem may be incompatible with the low latency and mobility of 5G, considering that the new generation of networks has ultralow latency characteristics to cope with the growth associated with IoT [66].

In this way, the 5G network should increase the speed of the internet and the connected smart devices, creating an environment with the organization for the coexistence between mobile devices and millions of connected objects, which, if well planned, could become a fully structured environment regarding the prediction of risk scenarios and disaster management, in addition to helping in the development of smart cities with a focus on efficiency [68].

Conclusions

One of the main uses of IoT for disaster management is the possibility of monitoring with real-time location systems; along with other tools and approaches, the administration is able to ensure more care and prevention with the main objective of ensuring that these smart devices send information collected in the field for mobile devices, assisting and facilitating the response and necessary human decisions put into practice.

After a natural disaster, a drone provides a quick means of navigating through debris with portable technology and information collection that can be used by teams working in a specific area, provided that this device is equipped with high-definition radars and cameras, supporting rescuers by providing access to a higher field of view, and due to its small size provides an approximate view of areas where larger air vehicles would prove to be inefficient or dangerous, disregarding the need to use resources with manned helicopters.

There are different types of applications that can be used in the monitoring of dams, for example, achieving a higher level of safety, since the use of sensors is very effective as it provides accurate and continuous measurements, without the need for the displacement of specialized professionals, enabling an effective cost reduction, combining the use of different equipment in order to obtain a comprehensive view of possible modifications that increase the risk of breakage, provided that with thermal sensors, being especially useful at night or in difficult terrains, achieving quickly discover the location of lost people, and can also be used in delivering supplies to an inaccessible location, taking into account that time is a crucial factor in search and rescue missions, particularly in adverse conditions, still considering the ease of deployment of those devices. Drones can also reach hard-to-reach places, such as mountains and eroded coastline, by acquiring high-resolution data by creating 3D maps, allowing data collection, and instant download of images.

In this way, the importance of interrelating different technologies and knowledge areas, such as IoT and AI in the context of disaster management are based on reducing the damage caused by climate change as well as being at the forefront of natural disasters with the possibility of predicting an event due to the acquisition of data and monitoring, assisting and feeding through these data obtained the functional communication systems, applied in cases of the rescue of victims and sharing of information. Although, the smart devices in the context of developing countries, although it seems something distant, from studies and collaborations of these different areas of knowledge, this idea already showing signs of being a reality.

 
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