MAPPING THE WATER AND WATER HERITAGE IN GUIMARAES
The water supply system in Guimaraes does not differ from other similar cities. Its conduction was made through a network of pipes, chapels, or aqueducts that originated in springs, wells, or mines that were used to provide the necessaiy flow to the population of the village (Fig. 1.4). The main source was located, since medieval times, in the Penha Mountain, veiy near to the city. These water supply networks invariably ended up in fountains or tanks distributed throughout the urban perimeter (Veloso, 2012). However, unlike other cities in the country such as Porto, Lisbon, or Coimbra, Guimaraes does not have a large river, where it can supply its needs. The city has some brooks, such as the Couros or the Herdeiro and the Selho, that constitute the hydrographic network of the city. Based on this amoiuit of information, we can come to some conclusions about the distribution of water in the city and its surroundings.
By the analysis of the map of 1569 it is possible to conclude that the number of public fountains within the walls is reduced. We have pointed out only the fountain of the Oliveiras square (31), in the neuralgic center of the village, attached to the tower of the Colegiada church. The map (Fig. 1.5) is silent as regards other water supply points within the urban perimeter. However, we can mention the existence of other points of supply, such as the Well of the Door of Senhora da Graga or Santa Luzia (35), the Well of the Square of the Peixe (36), Fountain of the house of the Arc (38), this one private, the remains of the sources of the Convent of Santa Clara (37), recently founded in 1553, compared to the date of the drawing of the map, in 1569. A reference is also made in the 1706 travel itinerary, which reveals existence of numerous private wells in the intramural houses, in their backyards, where there are one, two, three and sometimes four wells, which served to supply their owners, something that we can conclude, with a good margin of safety, as a much older reality (Freitas and Leite, 2018).
The fountains of Guimaraes are also located outside of walls. They are mentioned in the map of 1569 fountains that were mostly located along roads or trails (Estrela, 2017), as well as the construction of the monasteries of S. Francisco and S. Domingos in the 13th century, firstly modest constructions near the wall and which were therefore demolished by order of King D. Dinis, later displaced to the place they occupy today, the surrounding areas underwent a remarkable urban development. The supply of potable water was an incentive so it will not be surprising, the profusion of sources throughout this area coupled with the fact that there is a need for constant water sources for the leather industry through the stream that made its way there. We have indicated in the map of 1569 (Fig. 1.5), the Fountain of the Abade (01), Fountain of the Duchess (05), Fountain of the Americas (12), Fountain of the Pipa (07) or the Tank of S. Torcato (14), these next to conununication ways, and fountains and tanks in the area of influence of the mendicant monasteries, such as Fontain da Quinta (15) or Fontain do Banhadoiro (03).
FIGURE 1.5 Map of the fountains in 16th century. Source: Authors’ own compilation.
The Corografia of Father Antonio Carvalho da Costa, published in 1706, allows the description of a travel itinerary which he calls Fontes, que a Villa de Guimaraenstem dentro dos seusmuros, e nosseus Arrabaldes, to know the fountains, tanks, and wells that existed at the beginning of the 18th century in Guimaraes (Fig. 1.6). It is an interesting picture that besides the identification of the places where the fountains and wells were located, gives us also references, on the water quality of the springs. The combination of these sources, described in Corografía, with those of the map of 1569, allows to verify that many of the named ones already existed previously, adding others for which we do not have references that permit assumptions about its existence in the middle of the 16th century. We have ascertained the sources 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 12, 14, 15, 31, 35, 36, 37 and 38, as already existing in the middle of the century, and which were active in 1706, and others marked as 16, 10, 09, 18, 30, 40, 45, 41, 42, 43, 44, 23 which are the result of incorporations between 1569 and 1706. In this period there is a transformation in the plarming of these structures. Fountains and elaborated water fountains begin to emerge, which are constructive elements that are worthy by their own significance, that is, they are independent of architectural supports and accentuate this symbolic character that had already been acknowledged before. They are in the center of squares and rossios, consolidating the space and the power of representation: “fountains and elaborated water fountains appear isolated in the center of the squares and, as a modem element, possibly arising from the 15th century, amplified by aesthetic principles” (Estrela, 2017). In the case of Guimaraes, within this period, stands the Toural square fountain built in 1588 by Goncalo Lopes (marked on the map with number 23).
Concents about the control, management, and care of public water supply points in urban centers, as demonstrated by the authorities have been well documented since the dawn of the Middle Ages in Portugal and are becoming more pronounced as we move forward in time. Disputes arising from the quarrel over water sources, hygiene, abuses or control of mines, and springs are frequent in many cities, as Maria Teresa Nobre Veloso shows in the city of Coimbra since the 11th century (Veloso, 2012), and tends to intensify with growth and affirmation of urban development. In Guimaraes, during this period, between 1569 and 1706, there are innumerable cases that can be removed from municipal documentation and from litigation sponsored by other powers, such as religious, which in the Guimaraes case is indelibly marked by the omnipresence of the Royal Colegiada. The management of water resources, outmost as a result of population gr owth and increasingly specialized urban organization start to have crucial importance at both the public and private levels.
©PONTE DO ABADE
@ PONTE CHAFARIZ TRAS DO CASTELO
® FONTE DO BANHADOIRO
FON TE DA MADROA
® FONTE DA DUQUESA/SANTA CRUZ
® FONTE DA PAPA/BARRELA
@ FONTE DA PIPA
^TANQUE DE S. TORCATO
@FONTE DA QUINTA
Gfl FONTE DA PRAQA DA OLIVE IRA
GS POCO DA PORTA DE N.S. DA GRAQA/SANTA LUZIA
@ POCO DA PRACA DO PEIXE
GpFONTES DO MOSTEIRO DE SANTACLARA @ FONTE DA CASA DO ARCO
Estanque da misericordia
S3 FONTE DA COZINHA DO HOSPITAL DA MISERICORDIA
63 FONTE DA DOURADA
ES FONTE DAS MALEITAS
E3 FONTE DE SANTA LUZIA
EJ FONTE DE COUROS
gg FONTE DO AMOR (?)
S FONTE NOVA
gl FONTE DE FATO
E3 CHAFARIZ DO TOURAL
FIGURE 1.6 Map of the fotmtains in 18th century. Source: Authors’ own compilation.
In the mid-19th century, concern about water supply to urban centers remains a constant reality. The need to face the increase consumption, among other factors, due to demographic pressure, regularization of flows throughout the year, as well as concerns about the quality of water for human consumption, in the light of new advances in public hygiene, the awareness of urgency in the municipal policies of water supply in urban environments (Fig. 1.7). Guimaraes, due to a chronic insufficiency in the supply flows, especially in the summer, very pronounced from the mid-80s and reaching its peak in 1898, in which there are reports of fountains and sources that dr ied, stimulate, from the end of the 19th century the need of more attention to this theme. Since the middle of the 16th century, urban supply was mainly made by the water volumes in the Sena de Santa Catarina (as known as Sena da Perrlra), near the urban center, that were led through pipes to the city. These acquisitions of new mines and their reservoirs were acquired by the public authorities over time, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and introduced into the supply system. However, it was proved that it was not sufficient for the required levels of consumption; the constant deviations, the lack of maintenance of the structures, and the lack of cleaning that clogged the pipes and the water collectors produced a chronic lack of sources to the public supply. This led to a very marked demand for private solutions as wells that existed in large numbers for the city and its surroundings. The main issue, however, was the quality of the water for public consumption, either the one responsibility for the public authorities, through the network of aqueducts and fountains, or in the wells for private use. In fact, the existence of diseases caused by the consumption of contaminated water is a problem for the public authorities and hence the various causes of conflicts with the prohibition of certain fountains by contamination. The same was true of gr oundwater contaminated with sources of contamination and a lack of collective awareness about the problem of sewers and urban sanitation networks. This problem of lack of water resources for consumption and for industry became more accurate at the end of the 19th century. The first consolidated plans for obtaining sufficient flows for the definitive resolution of this chronic lack of water for public supply by the Swiss geologist Paul Choffat, as well as, in 1899, an in-depth study on the quality, physical, chemical, and bacteriological of the available sources, ordered to the microbiologist Charles Lepiene. The conclusion of these stirdies pointed, regarding supply, to increase the exploration in Sena da Penlra, since long time the exceptional place for great volume of water in the city, and the quality of the water available for public consumption, the conclusion was the verdict of contamination of the flows in general (Costa, 2014).
It will be from these reports and from the awareness of the public powers, that at the beginning of the 20th century, will definitely be resolved the issue of quantity and quality in public water supply.
'0$ FONTE DO ABADE
'■“z FONTE CHAFARIZ TRAS DO CASTELO
faj FONTE DO BANHADOIRO
& FONTE DA MADROA
i<7$ FONTE DA DUQUESA/SANTA CRUZ
FONTE DA PAPAi'BARRELA
FONTE DA PIPA
FONTE DA AMEIAS
u) TANQUE DE S.TORCATO
FONTE DA QUINTA
J< FONTE DA PRAtJA DA OLIVEIRA
(3$PO<)O DA PORTA DE N.S. DA GRA^A/SANTALUZLA po<;o da por<;a do peixe
@ FONTES DO MOSTEIRO DE SANTA CLARA
@ FONTE DA CASA DO ARCO
E FONTE DAS MALEITAS
t¡Q] FONTEDE SANTALUZIA
0 FONTE DE COUROS
E FONTE DO MESTRE
FONTE DA BURACA
H FONTE DO AMOR (?>
E3 FONTE NOVA
Si FONTE DE FATO
K FONTE DE S. GUALTER
gj FONTE DOS IMPEDIDOS
S FONTE DE D. DUARTE
E CHAFARIZ DO TOURAL
ÍFONTE NOVA DA RUA DE S. ANTONIO FONTE DA GARRIDA
FONTE DE TRAS DE OLEIROS
FONTE DO CAMPO DA FEIRA
FONTE TRAS DE
TANQUE/CHAFARIZ DO CARMO FONTE DOS APOSTOLOS
FONTE DOS QUARTEIS
TANQUE DO CAMPO DO SALVADOR FONTE DA PRACJA DO MERCADO FONTE DAS OLIVEIRAS OLI DO OLIVAL TANQUE DA RUA DE D. JOAOI
FIGURE 1.7 Map of the fountains in 19th century. Source: Authors’ own compilation.