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ANAMBRA STATE

Anambra State is geographically located in southeastern Nigeria and lies between longitudes 6°35'E; 7°30' and latitudes 5°40'N; 6°48'N. The state is bounded in the west by Delta state, south by Imo state, north by Enugu, and in the northwest by Kogi. The state is made up of 21 local government areas namely: Awka North, Awka South, Aguata, Anambra East, Anambra West, Anaocha, Ayamelum, Ekwusigo, Dunukofra, Idemili North, Idemili South, Ihiala, Njikoka, Nnewi North, Nnewi South, Ogbaru, Onitsha North, Onitsha South, Oyi, and Orumba North and South. Onitsha, Awka, and Nnewi are the major cities in the state (Odum, 2017) with Awka as the state capital and seat of the government administration. The state witnessed political instability since the return of democracy in in Nigeria in 1999. Rigging of election and court cases have made most of the governors not to complete their usual 4-year tenure until in the recent past. Such political instability and inconsistency cannot aid any meaningful developmental plan for ecotourism in the state.

The flora characterizing Anambra State are as follows: Oil palm tree (Elaeis guineenisis), breadfruit (Treculia africana), mangoes (Mangifera indica), coconut (Cocos nucifera), African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidium), Africa pear (Dacroydes edulis), oranges (Citrus sinensis), oil bean (Pentachlethra macrophylla), Newbouldia leavis (Ogirisi), and so on. Most of these trees are of economic value to the people of the state. It is a major source of income for some families. Anambra has the following forest reserves: Achalla Forest Reserve with a size of 202.5 ha, Mamu Forest Reserve with 8183 ha, Anambra East Forest Reserve with 1457 ha, Akpaka Forest Reserve with 109.02 (decimated), Osornari Forest Reserve with 12,098 ha, Aguaba Forest Reserve with 222.63 ha, and Nkachu-Ituku Forest Reserve with 108.78 ha (Odum, 2017). In the state, there are other forest relics in the following towns: Urnuawulu, Nzam, Orumbanassa, Igbokaenyi, Ukwulu, and so on. These are not gazetted, and presently most of them are being threatened due to population increase and quest for residential houses (Odum, 2017).

METHOD

Mixed method of research was used in this study. The qualitative aspect comprises in-depth interviews with principal informants within the conununities and Department of Tourism, Ministry of Diaspora, Culture and Tourism, and Forestry Department of Ministry of Environment. The Director of Tourism in the Ministry of Diaspora, Cultur e and Tourism and the Director of Forestry in Ministry of Environment were interviewed and other staff of the ministries who have spent over 10 years in the civil service of the state. Key informants were selected in the eight communities based on age and experience, positiorr/post in the community like town union presidents, relationship with the attractions, especially chief priests of lakes/caves. The key informants comprise kings, cave guards, chief priests, Director of Forestry in Anambra state, the state zonal forest officers, and so on. The quantitative aspect entails distribution of questionnaires randomly in the communities and within the selected ministries (Ministry of Diaspora Affairs, Culture and Tourism, and Ministry of Environment). Based on the number of staff in the aforewritten ministries, an arbitrary sample of 40 questionnaires was shared equally in both ministries within relevant departments in each ministry, namely, Tourism Department in Ministry of Diaspora, Culture and Tourism, and Department of Forestry in Ministry of Environment and 20 questionnaires were administered in each department. The Taro Yarnane (1967) formula was applied to generate the sample size for the study. The population of each of the communities is used as a basis for determining the minimum sample size required in Table 7.1. The formula is given as:

N n =------7

1 + A(e)2

where n is the sample size; N is the finite population; e is the level of significance (0.05 level of significance); and 1 is the unity.

The population of each of the communities was projected from the 1991 figure to 2014 given a population growth of 2.21% (National Population Commission Office in Awka) per annum, using the following formula:

P = F),(l + r)"

where P is the projected population; Pa is the population of a given year (here, the Pa is 1991); n is the number of years (1991-2014, i.e., 23 years); and 1 is the unity (a constant); and r is the growth rate.

Therefore, in applying the Yarnmne (1967) formula:

N

1 + Y(e)2

Substituting,

164,741 1 +164,741 (0.05)2 n = 400

A total of 480 copies of questionnaires were distributed across the eight communities and the number allotted to each community is given in Table 7.2. Taro Yamane formula gave 400 as the minimum sample size. It is assumed that out of eveiy 10 questionnaires, 2 may not be returned as a result of what the researcher observed during reconnaissance surveys, such as low turnout and peoples lack of interest in study of this nature with fear that government wants to know about them, less population in some of the sampled communities that will make the data generated to be too scanty. Therefore, additional 20% was added to the sample size to make it 480.

TABLE 7.1 Projected Population from 1991 to 2014.

S/No.

Communities

Population as 1991

Projected to 2014

1

Agulu

49,310

81,524

2

Ufuma

24,202

40,013

3

Amaokpala

3182

5261

4

Awka

58,225

96,312

5

Ogbunike

19,985

33,041

6

Okpeze

1834

3032

7

Owene-Ezukala

6027

9964

8

Ndiukwuenu

1976

3267

9

Total

164,741

272,414

Source: Authors’ computation.

Secondary data were used to support the primary data. Articles relating to PPP were consulted and they helped to shed light on the variants of PPP that are in literature.

It is worthy to note, the study lasted for three years due to financial constraints and verifying the status of these attractions was necessary. This entailed ground frothing and helped in creating Table 7.3 and location of key features with global positioning system, which aided in the creation of the map with selected communities in the study area. The study is limited to selected attractions in the following communities: Agulu Lake in Agulu, lyi-ocha in Amaokpala, Ogba Ogbunike in Ogbunike, Ufuma cave in Ufuma, Ogba-ukwu in Owerrezukalla, Мати Forest Reseive within Ndiukwuenu and Okpeze, andAgu-aba Forest Reseive in Awka as highlighted in Figure 7.1.

TABLE 7.2 Distribution of Questionnaire.

Communities

Projected population (2014)

Proportionate sample of questionnaire per community

■ Questionnaires per community (20%)

Questionnaires returned

Agulu

81,524

120

144

140

Ufuma

40,013

59

71

68

Amaokpala

5261

8

9

9

Awka

96,312

141

169

165

Ogbunike

33,041

49

59

53

Okpeze

3032

4

5

5

Owene-Ezukala

9964

14

17

18

Ndiukwuenu

3267

5

6

6

Total

272,414

400

480

464

Source: Authors’ computation.

FINDINGS

There are innumerable tourist attractions in Anambra state. Some of these attractions are listed in Table 7.3 while the cunent status is explored in the column named remarks.

Forest reserves in the state are managed by the Ministry of Environment. The number of gazetted forest reserves is eight. Akpaka forest has been decimated, replaced with a housing estate. Agu-aba Forest Reserve is currently threatened by development. These forest reserves are poorly managed due to the following: poor government attention, inadequate forest officers to manage these reserves, community/indigenes encroachment, weak regulation, lack of forest policy in the state, use of outdated forest laws, and so on. While government-owned forest reserves are saddled with these challenges, the ungazetted ones are heavily logged, and most of the communities have relied on these ungazetted ones to make a living. Hunters make a living from these ungazetted forests: a reality that has caused some animals in the forest to relocate, especially C. sclateri,

which the hunters in Umuawulu axis attested that they rarely see nowadays. This is also partly engendered by other anthropogenic disturbances. For instance, conununity members harvest nonforest timber products (NTFPs) like bush mango (Jrvingia gabonensis) from these reserves. It is worthy of note, these ungazetted forests have more diversity of flora and fauna than the gazetted reserves that is filled with Gmelina (Gmelina arbored) and teak (Tectona grandis) conserved mainly for wood production.

Anambra state showing the sampled towns in red dots

FIGURE 7.1 Anambra state showing the sampled towns in red dots.

Source: GIS laboratory, Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

T AB LE 7.3 List of Some Eco-tourist Attractions in Anambra State.

S/no. Tourist attraction

T> pe of attraction

Location

Ownership Remarks

Caves

1

Ogba Ogbunike

Natural

Ogbunike

2

Ogba Ajalli

Natural

Ajalli

3

Ogba Ufuma

Natural

Ufuma

4

Ogba ukwu

Natural

Owerrezukalla

5

Ngene-Oji

Natural

Mbaukwu

Lakes and livers

6

Ngene-oji

Natural

Mbaukwu

7

Agulu Lake

Natural

Agulu

8

lyi-ocha

Natural

Amaokpala

9

Obutu Lake

Natural

Omogho

10

Nawfia Lake

Natural

Nawfia

11

Otumoye Lake

Natural

Onitslia

12

Ajiogbe Lake

Natural

Aguleri-out

Community

Attracted UNESCO attention and state government attention. For example, state government has built a road leading to it

Community

Community

Managed by community; not developed

Managed by a family; not developed and rarely known

Community

Managed by the community; state government has shown interest in its development but no physical proof yet

Community

Not developed

Community

Community

Not developed. Unknown

Managed by community; government has built a hotel close to the lake. Filled with crocodiles that are believed to be sacred

Community

Community

Community

Community

Managed by community; not developed

Not developed

Not developed

Not developed; polluted, affected by urbanization

Community

Not developed

:-Private Partnership: A Probable Panacea 143

TABLE 7.3 (Continued)

S/no.

Tourist attraction

Type of attraction

Location

Ownership

Remarks

13

Obizi River

Natural

Nise/Mbaukwu/Nibo, etc.

-

Not har nessed for any tourism pur pose

14

Nkisi River

Natural

Onitsha/Nkpor

-

Not harnessed for any tourism purpose

15

Ezegu River

Natural

Ufuma

Community

Not developed. Tire bank is used for rice plantation

Forests

16

Achalla Forest Reserve

Natural

Achalla

Government

Gazetted; poorly managed

17

Mamu Forest Reserve

Natural

Okpeze/Ndiukwuenu

Government

Gazetted; poorly managed

18

Anambra East Forest Reserve

Natural

Gazetted; poorly managed

19

Akpaka Forest Reserve

Natural

Onitsha

Government

Gazetted; poorly managed

20

Ogbakuba Forest Reserve

Natural

Ogbakuba

Government

Gazetted; poorly managed

21

Agu-aba Forest Reserve

Natural

Awka

Government

Gazetted; poorly managed

22

Nkachu-Ituku Reserve

Natural

Government

Gazetted; poorly managed

23

Forests in Umuawulu

Natural

Umuawulu

Community

Ungazetted forest; filled with different flora and fauna; like the endemic Cercopithecus sclateri is found in the forest

24

Forest in Ukwulu

Natural

Ukwulu

Community

Ungazetted filled with different species of flora

Source: Authors’ fieldwork (2017).

Capacity Building Through Heritage Tourism

Streams, lakes, and rivers in the state are not developed for tourism purposes. These attractions are currently managed by host communities. Communities around these water bodies use these resources to make a living through fishing, while others cultivate rice at the bank of their river like in Ozegu river in Ufuma; others use their for spiritual purposes like Agulu Lake. The Lake is known to have different species of aquatic organisms especially crocodiles. These crocodiles are totem animals and they hold a lot of unique appeal for tourists/visitors and have made the lake popular.

Caves of different sizes and geologic formations exist in the state. These caves are managed by the community within their capacity, with sole interest in the economic benefits associated with visitors. Visitors, researchers, and tourists are charged with different amounts of money to access these caves. The most popular among them is Ogbunike cave which has attracted the attention of UNESCO and state government. The state has built a public convenience near the cave to control open defecation.

Caves, streams, lakes, rivers, and forests in the state have not been developed for tourism purposes. This is caused by little government attention, poor documentation of tourist attractions in the state, inadequate manpower, and poor public knowledge about these attractions.

It is the responsibility of government to harness and manage these eco-tourist attractions but this has failed over the years. Communities have resorted to managing them, and this has resulted in variation in prices to enjoy some of these attractions especially the caves, where some communities charge up to a thousand naira per (between 2-3 dollars) person. Meanwhile, there is no stipulated price anywhere for the intending visitor, tourist, or researcher to know what price s/he is to pay on the site. The money realized goes into the community purse. However, these communities do not have the financial capability to develop these attractions. Besides, the community management at the moment is poor as they are interested only in the money they generate from visitors. Unfortunately, unregulated and uncoordinated visits to these caves have led to their defacement. For instance, as regards to Ogbunike cave, the environment is often littered with bowls and items used for sacrifice in worshiping the deity the cave is associated with. Moreover, forest reserves are not well managed let alone developing them for tourism interest.

 
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