Table of Contents:
Tribal Tourism Development through Tribal Fairs in Rajasthan, India
Tribal fails are the mirror of the cultural and historical bequest of the conununity. Geographically and socially isolated, these fans are linked with visualizing tribal cultural diversities. Then customs, traditions, attire, music, and dance are the keys to then social and economic development where then originality and authenticity are preserved reverentially, hi reality, these fairs are also positively contributing to the country’s development process. Thus, die objective of this research is to study the impact of tribal festivals on the local and wider socioeconomic well-being. The endeavor is to find out the role of tribal fans in then social and economic development and to dig out die possibility of involvement with the mainstream of the society. Rajasthan is a state of India diat reflects various colors of cultures and traditions. It also comprised many tribes living with then originality and authenticity. This research takes case analyses of tribal fairs of Rajasthan. Baneshwar fan by die Bliil tribes and the Sitabari Mela by Saharia tubes are dominant in this area and om target group. This literature-based research affirms diat each tube has its traditions and customs. Tribal fairs are the showcase of their complete culture and cultural tourists always admire the originality. So it can be a tool for dieir social and economic development. Many shategies need to create an environment for tubal fairs capitalizing opportunities. Finally, this chapter suggests the need to preserve the intangible tribal heritage through tribal fairs.
Tribal tourism is a new and expanded addendum, which is in such postmodern travel mode as the journey of postmodernism, nature, and wilderness. For tourists, these new destination concepts present a vague awareness of dwindling resources that individuals should see while they still can (Smith, 1996). “Tribal tourism” has been defined by Ward (2010) as “a new form of travel,” in which tourists travel to tribal villages to be completely isolated from their culture. India, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Orissa, Nagaland, Himachal, and Chhattisgarh are states that can develop more and more tribal tourism. Tribal tourism has been instrumental in creating many money opportunities for tribes living in mountainous areas. It has helped to raise awareness about indigenous people in India, many of whom face harassment, lack of opportunities, and social exclusion. Although tourism may sound good to society, it is also causing social and psychological consequences for tribes that are more harmful than beneficial.
Many researchers, NGO activists, social workers are working for tribal development, upliftment, and inclusion in society. Providing basic amenities to the essential community is never the solution. Keeping this idea in mind, the tribal tourism concept came to the mind of many researchers. As the original tribe area unit wealthy with ethnic characteristics of cultural resources, some remote tribe in particular has preserved many of the social systems, handicrafts, and rituals that individuals within the city build a strong attraction. Chang et al. (2009) found that native culture is a very important indicator of tourism product minors based primarily on tribal tourism areas, which is basically the main material of the original goods, as it has become the replacement style of economic sources. Hindi and Manservant (1989) found that native tourists suggest that natives are directly related to the conduct of tourism trade or tourism trade as a way of attracting tourists to return to tribal culture. Research is mainly conducted from literature review and on-site visits to achieve the set objectives of the subject; that is, tribal festivals can be a tool for social and economic development and preservation of their customs and tradition. The purpose of this study is to find out whether tribal festivals can support their economic development on the one hand and the preservation of their customs and traditions on the other.
“Indigenous Business Analysis, Past and Present: Where to From Here?” written by Whitford and Ruhanan (2016) where the results show that sustainability issues shape a significant proportion of published and indigenous tourism research to date. The challenge may now be to gain an additional comprehensive understanding of native tourists from the angle of native stakeholders, approaching its complexity in an iterative, adaptive, and flexible style, and within the analysis methodology, knowledge creation, and its consequences for the affected stakeholders. It is both an ethical imperative and a pragmatic approach that facilitates the sustainability of indigenous tourism to ensure research results.
Carr et al. (2016) highlighted the potential of tourism as an effective tool for realizing sustainable Indigenous development in “Indigenous Peoples and Tourism: Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Tourism.” Throughout the papers reviewed intensively, readers are reminded of the positive (capacity building) and negative (revision) realities of indigenous tourism development.
A section of the “Commodification and Management of Culture, Advance in Tourism Research, 2005, Tourist-Host Nexus-Research Things” in Ryan and Aicken (2005) examined the nexus of the researcher and conducted research in the context of the relationship between tourism and indigenous peoples. It was argued that three dimensions exist in this regard, such as education, indigenous perspective, and the imperative of tourism.
The article “Indigenous Tourism Development in the Arctic” by Claudia Notzke (1999) explores cunent trends in indigenous (tribal) tourism development in the Western Arctic region of Canada. In the north, tribal tourism is a resource-based industry, traditionally in the form of hunting for big game and, in a more modem context, evolves into ecological and cultural or ethnic tourism. Some endemic people search for new methods to support the standard components of their land-based economy rather than being consumed by class industry. The authenticity of this tourism expertise represents a major asset as well as a significant management confrontation.
“Attracting tourists to tribal cultural festivals: An example in Rukai tribal area, Taiwan” by Chang (2006) reported that festivals are increasingly being used to promote tourism and boost the regional economy. The area unit of festivals is a type of cultural event and the area unit is a travel attraction with specific options. A lot of research, done from different perspectives, exists on festivals. However, veiy few studies related to tribal cultures have been published. The main objective of this study is to profile tourists based on their motives and demographic characteristics, as these traits are class measurements related to attractions for tribal cultural festivals and other related activities. Report analysis showed that cultural motivation is, among other motivational dimensions, the most important factor attracting tourists to the tribal cultural festival. Furthermore, not all tourists are equally interested in competition cultural expertise. In addition, motivational variables are found to be more important than convincing visitors to a visitor festival and demographic variables in the segment.
TRIBE AND HISTORY
The English word tribe comes back from the Latin word “tribus” which denotes a specific type of general and political organization that has been conveyed to all societies. The name Individuals’ tribe refers to a class of individuals and refers to a stage of development in human society. These tribes depended heavily on the forest for their daily needs, including food, shelter, equipment, medicine, and in some cases clothing. As long as the tribes were in control of the forest and its products were used for open use, they had no difficulty in meeting these needs. In return, he protected the forest because it was his life network. During the last 60 years and especially during the planning period, the pace of mining and manufacturing industries, as well as the use of power and forest resources, has been substantially accelerated, which is responsible for the loss of their indigenous culture and this is partially documented in the book “The Tribal Culture of India” (Vidyarthi and Rai, 1977). This study is shedding light on the important issues related to then cultural life that tribes face today. Although industrialization and modernization have their own importance, we also have to realize that tribal culture has to be preserved, buried in the greater focus on industrialization and modernization.
Special interest tourism (SIT), a rapidly growing concept and approach to tourism, demonstrates a strong people-centered, sustainable model that seeks a more authentic experience to enable closer contact with host communities. Weiler and Hall (1992) suggest that rewarding, enriching, thrilling, and learning are the four key elements of special interest tourism. SIT products offer customized packages of experiences developed for niche markets (Douglas et al., 2001). These products provide unique insights into particular sites, communities, or bodies of knowledge. Under the purview of SIT, indigenous people are now becoming part of the tourism industry. This section named “Indigenous Tourism” makes it a special interest area for tourists who like to experience authentic indigenous culture and ethnicity.
Indigenous tourism is a type of resource-based tourism type, and as a major tourist attraction, the development of tourism in addition to indigenous culture, local scenic natural landscapes and exotic landscapes, and a lot of tourists consider the “man” to be truly necessary Many scholars have defined various definitions for tribal tourism: Ryan and Houghton (2002) define tribal tourism as “a tourist artistic display by tribal culture, festivities, attractions, historical heritage, and customs tourists engaged in tribal areas Attracts travel activities.” Wu (2003) believes that “tribal tourism” differs from the general pattern of tourism activities, as contacts are unable to ride hard or talk with natural resources, but those who live, authentic cultural traditions. “Tribal tourism” is defined as the development of tribal cultural resources as a pivot, which are developed things; statements of activities include tribal arts and crafts, clothing, architecture, music, dance, cultural traditions, and so on (Liao and Lin, 2003, “A Study of Indigenous Tribes Tourism Developing-Case by Lilang, Tbulan, and Hrung in Taiwan,” 7).
Therefore, autochronic business ventures typically involve small businesses that support the underlying social group information of culture and nature. It flourishes when indigenous people operate tourism and cultural centers, provides visitor facilities, and control cultural events and tourist access to homelands (Zeppel, 2001). According to Smith (1996), four Smith Hs (e.g., habitat, heritage, history and handicrafts) define indigenous tourism as a segment of the visitor industry that directly includes native people whose ethnicity is a tour ist attraction. Indigenous tourism is a means of cultural survival for many Native communities and provides a way to overcome social isolation.
Tribal cultures are of special interest and primary motivating factor for tourists traveling to foreign places, regions, attractions, and events. These include indigenous museums and cultural villages, nature-based tourism, indigenous festivals and programs, and indigenous art galleries. Indigenous tourism attractions are often located in rural or remote areas with limited infrastructure (Getz and Jamieson, 1997). Cultural, environmental, and spiritual aspects of indigenous heritage and traditions make it an integral part of indigenous tourism (Heather, 2006). The primary strength of tribal tourism lies in its ability to attract tourists and arouse their interest to experience local cultures in the most authentic settings. The participation of tourists in interactive activities with tribal people is another important strength of indigenous tourism. The priority of this market is more in offering intimate and spontaneous cultural experiences as there is a strong connection between tribal cultures and the natural environment. The Tribal Cluster inherits the associate degree of traditions, which are deeply frozen in their culture and lifestyle.