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Concluding Remarks

In this chapter, concentrated solar thermal energy-driven multi-generation systems based on the organic Rankine cycle technology were reviewed. Power generation, cogeneration, trigeneration, and multi?generation systems were discussed, and their possible configurations were presented. Issues related to the system design were addressed.

For solar organic Rankiue cycle systems, parabolic trough collector and linear Fresnel reflector technologies are typically used. For cost parity, the cost of the linear Fresnel reflector technology (€/nr) should be about 50% to 60% lower than that of the parabolic trough collector technology. A recently analyzed nanostructured polymer foil-based concentrated solar field is a promising alternative for small to medium-scale organic Rankiue cycle systems.

For fresh water generation applications, thermal energy driven multi-effect distillation is a better option than the electrical energy driven reverse osmosis system. The type of components (expander, heat exchangers and pump) and working fluid of the organic Rankine cycle power system should be decided based on the solar collector field data, type of application, and capacity of the system.

For cooling applications, depending on the temperature needed, either the electrical energy driven conventional vapor compression refrigeration systems or the thermal energy driven vapor absorption refrigeration systems can be used. The recently investigated cascaded refrigeration system is a promising alternative; however, it is currently at the research stage and no commercial plant exists as of yet.

The selection of type and size of the concentrated solar field, thermal energy storage, organic Rankiue cycle power system, and other sub-systems is of vital importance for attaining a cost-effective solution. Solar irradiation data and load characteristics affect the overall system configuration and controller design.

Acknowledgement

The present work has been funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme with a Marie Sklodowska-Cmie Individual Fellowship under grant agreement no. 794562 (Project: Small-scale CSP). The financial support is gratefully acknowledged.

Nomenclature

Ap cl aperture area of the solar collector field (nr)

DNI direct normal irradiauce (W/nr)

h specific enthalpy (J/kg)

IAM incidence angle modified

m mass flow rate (kg/s)

W power (W)

О heat rate (W)

T temperature (°C)

Uj j first-order heat loss coefficient based on aperture area (W/(nr K))

Un_ second-order heat loss coefficient based on aperture area (W/(nrK5))

Greek symbols

tl efficiency

Subscripts

a ambient

c condenser

CL collector

e evaporator

g generator

is isentropic

in mean

о optical

P pump

T turbine

Abbreviations

CSP concentrated solar power

HMDS hexamethyldisiloxane

HTF heat transfer fluid

LFR linear Fresnel reflector

ORC organic Rankine cycle

PTC parabolic trough collector

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