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Ancestral Diets and Nutrition

The Status QuoProblems amid ProsperityBelief That Diet Is at the Root of Modern AilmentsHunter-Gatherers as Models of Sound Nutrition and HealthThe Search for Enlightened Dietary and Nutritional AdviceDietary TypesAbsence of ConsensusAn Alternative to the Status Quo: A Prehistorical and Historical Approach to Diet and NutritionTypes and Interpretation of EvidenceHypothesis TestingLimitations of a Prehistorical and Historical Approach to Diet and NutritionExamination of the Past on Its Own TermsNotesComponents of Nutrition: Calories, Carbohydrates, Fat, Protein, Minerals, Vitamins, Phytochemicals, and WaterMacro- and Microlevel ConsistencyExpectation and Imperative of ConsistencyInvestigation of Scurvy as Example of Macro- and Microlevel ConsistencyFood as EnergyPhysics and Chemistry of EnergyThe Body Uses Chemical EnergyCarbohydratesSugarsStarchFiberGlycemic IndexGlycogenOther Functions of CarbohydratesCarbohydrate CriticsFatPlants and Animals Store Energy DifferentlyLipids, Fat, and OilSaturated FatUnsaturated FatLipids and Organic SolventsFat: The Energy Densest MacronutrientUses of Fat besides EnergyCholesterol and Its RegulationEssential Fatty AcidsFatty FoodsProteinImportance of ProteinRecommended Protein IntakeProtein Quantity versus QualityProtein SourcesInequalities and Protein IntakeProtein’s Roles in the BodyMineralsNeed for MineralsCharacteristics of MineralsSodium, Chlorine, and Table SaltMinerals Interact with Other NutrientsSources of MineralsVitaminsInadequacy of Carbohydrates, Fat, Protein, and Minerals AloneFat-Soluble VitaminsWater-Soluble VitaminsVitamin Deficiency DiseasesPhytochemicalsWaterNotesChanging Circumstances and DietsAutotrophsHeterotrophsDisadvantagesClassification of HeterotrophsHuman Adaptations for Omnivory and EclecticismDietary BreadthThe Role of Choice in Dietary BreadthThe Role of Preferences in Dietary BreadthThe Role of Inequalities in Dietary BreadthThe Role of Several Factors in Dietary BreadthPrimate Origins, Evolution, and DietsPrimate CharacteristicsThe Necessity of Comparing Kindred PrimatesDegree of Relatedness and Definition of SpeciesThe Value of Comparison between Humans and Extinct Peoples and between Humans and ApesEarly Primates and Their DietsBipedalism and Food AcquisitionAustralopithecine and Paranthropus Origins, Evolution, and DietsHomo habilis and Homo rudolfensis: Origins, Evolution, and DietsHomo erectus, Globalism, and DietsArchaic H. sapiens: Origins, Evolution, and DietsModern H. sapiens: Origins, Evolution, and DietsFrom Food Acquisition to Food ProductionThe Debate over Agriculture and Animal HusbandryAgriculture and Animal Husbandry in PerspectiveNotesMeatUbiquity of MeatTypes of MeatEconomics, Biology, Psychology, and HistoryOrigins of Meat ConsumptionDebate about Meat’s HealthfulnessContextMeat in the Western DietMeat and LongevityMeat and LifestyleMeat in Ancient EgyptEgypt as Case StudyEgypt’s GeographyEgypt’s Settlement by Hunter-GatherersTransition to Agriculture and Animal HusbandryLiterary and Artistic Evidence of the PastLiterary Evidence of DietsMummies as Evidence of DietsMeat in North AmericaNorth America’s SettlementNorth American BisonHumans on the Great PlainsHealth on the Great PlainsMeat and Health in North AmericaMeat in Twentieth-Century ParaguaySettlement of South AmericaThe Ache in ParaguayAche DietsAche HealthMeat in PerspectiveNotesFish and ShellfishAntiquity of FishFish Consumption among Primates and Early HumansPre-Human Fish ConsumptionRole of Fish in Human EvolutionFishing and HumanityFish and Shellfish Consumption in ModernityGeography and Economics of ConsumptionNutrients in FishNutrients in ShellfishAquaculture and NutrientsHistory and Opinions about AquacultureFish Consumption and LongevityAlaska, Canada, Greenland, and the Pacific NorthwestDistribution of Fish in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and the Pacific NorthwestHuman Migrations into North AmericaRole of Geography and Climate in Fishing in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and the Pacific NorthwestFishing Supplied Much More Food than GatheringOverhunting Increased Reliance on FishFish Species Central to Amerindian DietsFish Targeted throughout the YearHealth in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and the Pacific NorthwestGreat BritainGeography and SettlementCentrality of Fishing in Earliest Times and AntiquityFishing in the Middle AgesConsumption of Salted FishIncreasing Demand for Fish and ShellfishDietary TrendsHealth in BritainNotesPoultry and EggsAvian EvolutionBirds and Eggs Entered DietsPre-Homo sapiens’ Consumption of Birds and EggsH. sapiens’ Early Consumption of Birds and EggsOverconsumption and ExtinctionDodoPassenger PigeonBird and Egg Consumption in the AmericasWorld Consumption of Birds and EggsPoultry as NourishmentPoultry as an Alternative to Beef and PorkPoultry’s Nutrient DensityPoultry, Nutrients, and AnemiaEastern HemisphereChickensDucksPoultry, Thailand, Vietnam, and HealthWestern HemisphereTurkeys in Pre-Columbian North AmericaTurkeys, Amerindians, and HealthNotesDairyCommon Dairy ProductsMilkCheeseButter and GheeIce CreamYogurtConsumption over Nine MillenniaDairying’s OriginsDairying in AfricaThe Mediterranean and EuropeThe Middle AgesEurope after the Middle AgesThe Caribbean and North AmericaAsiaCheese and Health in Rural FranceFrench CheesemakingEighteenth-Century Poor PeasantsPeasant DietsInadequate Nourishment and HealthUrbanization, Industrialization, Milk, and HealthRaw Milk and PathogensPasteurizationMilk as WholesomeDairy’s Health Effects ScrutinizedDairy, Bones, and TeethWestern Diets and CalciumCalcium RecommendationsDairy and Heart DiseaseDairy and StatureRecent TrendsThe AmishAmish OriginsDairying among AmishAmish Foods besides DairyDemographic Interest in the AmishAmish LongevityFinlandSettlement and EconomyFinnish HealthNotesLegumesTerminology and DescriptionCalories, Nutrients, and HealthNutrient DensityPeanuts’ NutrientsPhaseolus Beans’ Calories and FatSoybeans’ NutrientsLegumes’ Non-NutrientsLegumes as Inexpensive ProteinLegumes and MortalityEastern Hemisphere OriginsPisum sativumGlycine maxWestern Hemisphere OriginsPhaseolus vulgaris, P. lunatus, P. acutifolius, and P. coccineus ..Arachis hypogaeaLegumes, Slaves, and HealthLegumes in Slave DietsSlaves’ HealthComparisons between Slaves and Free PeopleNotesNutsDefinitionPrehistory and HistoryConsumption and NutritionNuts as EnergyNuts as Nutrient PackagesChestnut NutrientsAcorns’ TanninsComparison of Chestnuts and AcornsChestnutsOrigins and AntiquityPedology and GeographyChestnuts in North AmericaChestnuts in EuropeChestnuts’ ProblemsChestnuts and Health in FranceACORNSAntiquityAcorns and LivestockAcorns in Eastern and Western HemispheresAcorns and Health in CaliforniaNotesFatFat as Dietary ComponentSpeculation about the Amount of Fat in Preagricultural DietsProponents of High Fat IntakeCriticism of These Proponents’ SpeculationThe Controversy over Fat IntakeOlive OilOlive Oil versus Most Vegetable OilsOrigins of OleicultureOleiculture in EgyptOleiculture in GreeceOleiculture in the Roman EmpireOleiculture in the Middle AgesDefense of Olive OilCriticism of Olive Oil’s DefenseOlive Oil and Health in Roman AntiquityOlive Oil and Health in CreteOlives, Olive Oil, and Health in EgyptOlive Oil and Health in Modern GreeceOlive Oil and CaloriesOlive Oil’s NutrientsOlive Oil and High Fat DietsOlive Oil and Omega 9 Fatty AcidsComparisons among Olive, Soybean, and Peanut OilsNotesSweeteners: Honey, Sucrose, and High Fructose Corn SyrupHoneyHoneybeesHoney as LuxuryApicultureHoney’s Early PrevalenceHoney, Nutrition, and HealthSUCROSEChemistryBiology of CravingSugarcaneProduction and PricesConsumption, Nutrition, and HealthHigh Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS)OriginsCompetition between HFCS and SucroseConcerns about HFCS as Cause of Overweight and Obesity .Concerns about Many Causes of Overweight and Obesity besides HFCSHFCS, Overweight, and Obesity in the NetherlandsHFCS, Overweight, and Obesity among Native PeoplesNotesGrainsTerminologyEvolution of GymnospermsWheatWheat and Barley in Southwestern AsiaWheat’s DispersalWheat Belly and Grain BrainMotorization Rather than Wheat as Cause of ObesityContrast between Inactivity and ActivityDiminution in Wheat IntakeBroad Criticisms That Grains Undermine HealthGluten as Straw ManThe Obesity Epidemic as ContextCalories and Nutrients in GrainsWheat around the WorldMillingRiceRice in AsiaRice in Africa and the AmericasRice, Milling, and Deficiency DiseasesCornOrigins and DispersalCorn in Amerindian DietsCorn and Amerindian HealthCorn, Caribbean Slaves, and HealthCorn in EuropeCorn, China, and Population IncreaseCorn in AfricaCorn and PellagraCorn and KwashiorkorNotesRoots and TubersDefinitionsDietary DissonanceRootsSweet PotatoOrigins and Early DispersalSweet Potatoes, New Guinea, and HealthEurope’s Encounter with Sweet PotatoesSweet Potatoes’ Post-Columbian DispersalSweet Potatoes, Okinawa, and HealthSweet Potatoes North of OkinawaDivergent Opinions about Sweet Potatoes’ NutrimentSweet Potatoes, Japan, and Large PopulationsSweet Potatoes in North AmericaSweet Potatoes as World FoodCassavaOrigins and Early UsesEurope’s Encounter with CassavaCassava in the Old World TropicsCassava’s InadequaciesTubersPotatoPotatoes and Large Populations in Precontact South AmericaEurope’s Encounter with the PotatoesRecognition of Potatoes’ NutrimentPotatoes Combated ScurvyBarriers to Potatoes’ AdoptionPotatoes Enlarged Populations and Improved HealthPotatoes Reduced Famines and MortalityPotatoes Nourished Europe as Had No Previous FoodYamsYams’ Domestication and DispersalYams’ NutrimentYams, Yap Island, and AustraliaNotesFruitsDefinition and Seed DispersalFruits and Primate EvolutionFruits’ CriticsFruits’ AmbiguousnessNutrientsDatesDates, Humanity, and DomesticationDates, Arabs, and BedouinsArab and Bedouin HealthBananasBananas and the YanomamiYanomami HealthNotesVegetablesDefinitionImprecision and ConfusionAttempts to Define VegetablesNutrition and HealthA Reputation as HealthfulVitamins and Minerals in VegetablesRecommendations for Vegetable ConsumptionVegetables in Ancient RomeVegetables as More Popular among Nutritionists than PublicThe Consensus Tested in HerculaneumSuitability as Case StudySources of EvidenceDietsHealthNotesDiet and CivilizationDiet, Nutrition, Health, and SlimnessFactors That Govern HealthDiet Depends on ContextNotesBibliography

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