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Ayurveda in the New Millennium: Emerging Roles and Future Challenges

What We Learn from the History of AyurvedaIntroductionLearning from AnimalsEvolution of Medical SystemsIndia’s Gift to the WorldDṛḍhabala’s MissionThe Legacy of VāgbhaṭaAyurveda and Tamil MedicineThe Puzzling Dosage Form ArkaInteraction between Ayurveda and Islamic MedicineOrigin of Greco-Arabic MedicineIndian Influence on Greco-Arabic MedicineEmergence of ŪnāniThe Influence of Ayurveda on ŪnāniDevelopment of KhamīraDevelopment of Mā’junDevelopment of KuṣṭāAcceptance of New Plants into FormularyHow Ayurveda Benefited from Greco-Arabic MedicinePulse ExaminationDescription of New Disease EntitiesSnāyukarōgaMunnātakhyārōgaVardhmaAcceptance of New Plants into AyurvedaAdoption of New Dosage FormsInterest in ŪnāniSome Curiosities in Ayurveda TheoryPrabhāva (Special Potency)Gender BiasFuturistic Provisions in Ayurvedic PathogenesisOmission of TenetsAddition of ExplanationIntroduction of New ConceptConclusionReferencesManufacture of Ayurvedic Medicines – Regulatory AspectsEmergence of Regulatory ActivityEarly Days of the Ayurveda IndustryDrugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940The SchedulesThe RulesOther Applicable ActsThe Pharmacy Act, 1948The Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act, 1954The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Rules Act, 1985The Poisons Act, 1919The Drugs (Price Control) Order, 1995The Trade Marks Act, 1999The Biological Diversity Act, 2002How to Begin Manufacture of Ayurvedic MedicinesLicensingLoan LicenseApplying for a Manufacturing LicenseConditions of LicenseConditions of Loan LicenseProof of EffectivenessClassical FormulationsProprietary FormulationsRecords of Raw Material UsedG.M.P. CertificationPrinciples of the GuidelinesG.M.P. GuidelinesInspectors for Conducting G.M.P. InspectionDuties of the InspectorsProcedure for Collection of Drug Sample by InspectorJoint Inspection of Testing LaboratoriesPunishment for Violation of the ActCancellation or Suspension of LicensesLabeling of ProductsShelf Life of Ayurvedic MedicinesGood Clinical PracticesRegulatory Problems That Require SolutionMonitoring of A.Y.U.S.H. G.C.P. GuidelinesRevision of First ScheduleRegulation of Change in Dosage FormRegulation of Complementary ProductsLabeling of ProductsRevision of Schedule E1Effective Implementation of the ActConclusionReferencesIndustrial Manufacture of Traditional Ayurvedic MedicinesIntroductionProcurement of Herbal Raw MaterialStorage of Raw MaterialsPre-processing of Raw MaterialsCleaning of HerbsSize Reduction of HerbsAnalysis of Raw MaterialsSources of Medicinal FormulaeStandard Operating ProceduresMaster Formula for ProductionManufacture of Various Dosage FormsKvātha (Decoctions)Textual InstructionsIndustrial ManufactureCūrṇa (Medicinal Powders)Textual InstructionsIndustrial ManufactureGhṛta and Taila (Medicinal Lipids)Textual InstructionsIndustrial ManufactureAriṣṭa and Āsava (Fermented Liquids)Textual InstructionsIndustrial ManufactureAvalēha (Confections)Textual InstructionsIndustrial ManufactureGuḷika (Pills)Textual InstructionsIndustrial ManufactureLēpa (Paste)Processing of WastesVermicompostingBriquetting of Solid WastesStabilization of Black Cotton SoilRecycling of WastewaterConclusionReferencesQuality Control of Ayurvedic MedicinesIntroductionQuality Control Measures in Ancient TimesPresent State of Quality Control of Ayurvedic MedicinesAyurvedic Pharmacopoeia of IndiaFactors That Influence the Quality of Ayurvedic MedicinesGood Agricultural and Collection PracticesContaminationContamination with Heavy MetalsContamination with Micro-OrganismsContamination with PesticidesAdulteration and SubstitutionContent of BioactivesStabilityProcessing MethodsQuality Control MethodsMacroscopic EvaluationMicroscopic EvaluationPhysicochemical AnalysisFingerprintingT.L.C.H.P.L.C.Application of Fingerprint DataSimilarity Evaluation of FingerprintsPrincipal-Component Analysis (P.C.A.)Application of Fingerprinting to Quality ControlDetection of AdulterantsAuthentication of HerbsQuality Control of Finished FormulationsSome Problems Related to Quality ControlHeavy Metals in Ayurvedic PillsSouring of Ariṣṭa and ĀsavaQuality of WaterQuality of HerbsUse of Appropriate Brewing VesselHygienic Design of Brewing AreaDisinfectionUse of YeastTemperatureImprovised FermentationIrrational SubstitutionConclusionReferencesScientific Rationale for the Use of Single Herb Remedies in AyurvedaIntroductionEvidence in Favor of Medicinal UsesAcorus calamus L.Sedative ActionCNS Depressant ActionAnti-Convulsant ActionAllium sativum L.Crataeva magna (Lour.) DCCurcuma longa L.Cyperus rotundus L.Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DCEvolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.Glycyrrhiza glabra L.Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum.) HeineIpomoea mauritiana JacqMORINGA OLEIFERA Lam.Piper longum L.Effect on Digestive EfficiencyAntibacterial ActivityAnti-Inflammatory ActivityAnti-Cancer EffectPlumbago zeylanica L.Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de WildeStrychnos potatorum L. f.Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R.Br. ex Roem. & SchultesTerminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC) Wight & Arn.Terminalia belerica (Gaertn.) Roxb.TlNOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (WlLLD.) MlERS EX HOOK. F. & THOMSIn EthnomedicineClinical StudiesEffects on ImmunityAntibacterial ActivityAnti-Inflammatory ActivityVitex negundo L.Role of Co-Administered AdjuvantsConclusionReferencesBiological Effects of Ayurvedic FormulationsIntroductionAriṣṭa and Āsava (Fermented Liquids)AbhayāriṣṭaAmṛtāriṣṭaĀragvadhāriṣṭaAśōkāriṣṭaDaśamūlāriṣṭaDrākṣāriṣṭaJīrakāriṣṭaKanakāsavaKumāryāsavaPippalyāsavaVāśāriṣṭaCūrṇa (Powders)Avipattikara CūrṇaDāḍimāṣṭaka CūrṇaHaridrākhaṇḍaPuṣyānuga CūrṇaRajanyādi CūrṇaRāsnādi CūrṇaVaiśvānara CūrṇaGhṛta (Medicated Clarified Butter)Aśvagandha GhṛtaBrahmī GhṛtaJātyādi GhṛtaKalyāṇaka GhṛtaMahātiktaka GhṛtaNārasimha RasāyanaPhala SarpisSukumāra GhṛtaTṛphalā GhṛtaVidāryādi GhṛtaGuṭika (Pills)Bilvādi GuṭikaChandraprabhā VaṭiDhānvantaram GuṭikaKaiśōra GugguluKāñcanāra GugguluMānasamitra VaṭakaKvātha (Decoctions)Amṛtōttaram KvāthaBalāguḷūcyādi KvāthaDaśamūla KvāthaDaśamūla Kaṭutraya KvāthaDhānvantaram KvāthaDrākṣādi KvāthaGandharvahastādi KvāthaMahāmañjiṣṭādi KvāthaMahārāsnādi KvāthaNayōpāya KvāthaPaṭōla Kaṭurōhiṇyādi KvāthaPunarnavādi KvāthaSahacarādi KvāthaAvalēha (Electuaries)Agastya Harītaki RasāyanaCyavanaprāśaMāṇibhadra GuḍaBilvādi LēhyaTaila (Medicated Oils)Aṇu TailaBalā TailaGandharvahastādi Ēraṇḍa TailaIrimēdādi TailaKṣīrabalā TailaMahānārāyaṇa TailaMahāmāṣa TailaConclusionReferencesEvidence Building in Ayurveda: Generating the New and Optimizing the Old Could Be StrategicIntroductionAssembling Evidence in AyurvedaDirect and Indirect EvidenceYukti (Experiment)Āpta (Documented Evidence)Journeying through the Evidence in AyurvedaEvidence Pertaining to the Etiopathogenesis and Disease PresentationOptimizing the Old and Generating the New EvidenceOptimizing the Old: Re-Appropriation, Revalidation and Research SynthesisGenerating the New: Priority Areas for Clinical Research in AyurvedaAreas of Priority of Clinical Research in AyurvedaAreas Relevant to Contemporary Healthcare NeedsAreas Where Ayurveda Has Proven StrengthTaking Cues from Clinical ObservationsAreas of Textual Strength in AyurvedaAreas Important to Establishing Standards in Ayurvedic Clinical PracticeAyurveda in Vulnerable PopulationResearch Designs Needed in AyurvedaResearch Designs for Ayurvedic Core Concepts of Clinical MedicineConclusionReferencesConservation – A Strategy to Overcome Shortages of Ayurveda HerbsIntroductionFlora of IndiaBotanical Profile of Medicinal PlantsDistribution of Medicinal Plants in IndiaBiodiversity HotspotsMedicinal Plants in TradeSubstitutes and AdulterantsSpecies Traded in High VolumeMajor Supply SourcesThreat AssessmentConservationIn Situ ConservationEx Situ ConservationMedicinal Plant Conservation Areas (M.P.C.A.s)Success Stories of ConservationCommiphora wightii (Arn.) BhandariIn Situ ConservationDecalepis hamiltonii (Wight & Arn.)In Situ ConservationSaraca asoca (Roxb.) W. J. de WildeIn Situ ConservationMedicinal Plants Development Areas (M.P.D.A.s)Botanic GardensSeed BanksCultivationMeasurement and Monitoring of BiodiversityPilot-Scale MeasurementsGIS System – A Conservation ToolMapping of Plant DistributionGlobal and Indian Distribution MapsRegional Distribution MapsEco-Distribution MapsSustainable HarvestingSuccess StoryTerminalia chebula Retz.Classical Ways of Conserving Ayurvedic HerbsConclusionReferencesLessons to Be Learnt from Ayurveda: Nutraceuticals and Cosmeceuticals from Ayurveda HerbsIntroductionHistory of Medicine and AyurvedaNutraceuticalsNutraceuticals in AyurvedaChronic DiseasesRole of Nutraceuticals in Chronic DiseasesNutraceuticals in DiabetesNutraceuticals in Cardiovascular DiseasesNutraceuticals in Neurodegenerative DiseasesNutraceuticals in Inflammatory DiseasesNutraceuticals in ArthritisNutraceuticals in ObesityNutraceuticals in CancerNutraceuticals in Chronic Respiratory DiseasesAyurveda in Chronic DiseasesAyurveda in DiabetesAyurveda in Chronic Respiratory DiseasesAyurveda in CancerAyurveda in Cardiovascular DiseaseAyurveda in ArthritisAyurveda in Digestive DiseasesCosmeceuticalsHistory of CosmeceuticalsCosmeceuticals in AyurvedaImportant CosmeceuticalsConclusionReferencesAyurveda in the WestIntroductionThe Turning PointThe Fundamental ProblemsLack of Support from the Indian GovernmentInsistence of Indian Government on Basing Western Courses on the B.A.M.S. SyllabusWestern Ayurveda Is Driven by Money and Economic Factors vs Educational PrioritiesEach Western Country Has Different Rules concerning T.M./C.A.M.Definition of What a Practitioner Can Legally Do TherapeuticallyDefinition of Which Therapeutic Procedures Are LegalDefinition of Herbs vs MedicineRegulatory Bodies: Self-Regulating vs Government-RegulatedConclusionReferencesAyurveda Renaissance - Quo Vadis?IntroductionRenewed Interest in AyurvedaTheoretical Constructs of AyurvedaTridōṣa (The Three Vitiators)Dhātu (Tissue Elements)Mathematical Modeling of TridōṣaPrakṛti (Constitutional Types)Understanding PrakṛtiGene Polymorphism of Drug Metabolizing EnzymeWhole Genome Expression and Biochemical CorrelatesGenetic Basis of PrakṛtiPrakṛti and Variations in Platelet AggregationCardiovascular Responses and PrakṛtiAutonomic Responses and PrakrtiIsotonic Aerobic Exercise and PrakrtiDNA Methylation Analysis of Prakrti GroupsImmunophenotyping of Prakrti GroupsAssociation of Prakṛti with DiseasesPrakrti in TherapeuticsUniform Method for Assessment of PrakṛtiTaste and Drug ActionTaste Response as Sensory Expression of Pharmacological ActivityRole of Taste Preferences in DiagnosisMolecular Basis of Ayurvedic MedicinesProblems That Warrant Urgent AttentionBotanical Identity of HerbsIdentification of Formulae with Lesser IngredientsDiscovering New Dosage FormsSubstitution of Plant PartsPharmaceutics of Ayurvedic MedicinesResearch on PosologyResearch on RasaśāstraObjective Way of Teaching AyurvedaDiagnosis of DiseasesClinical Research on Ayurvedic MedicinesConclusionReferences

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