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Avalēha (Confections)

Textual Instructions

Avaliha or liha is a semi-solid dosage form prepared by evaporating a kvatha and adding jaggery, sugar or candied sugar. It is also processed sometimes with specific juices of herbs. Another name

Bottling of arista and asava. Photo courtesy

FIGURE 3.15 Bottling of arista and asava. Photo courtesy: Nagarjuna Herbal Concentrates Ltd, Kerala (www.nagarjunaayurveda.com).

TABLE 3.7

Some Elements of the Master Formula for Production of Bhrngarajasavam

Ingredients

Jaggery 33.33 kg

Eclipta alba juice derived from 127.5 kg fresh herb 85.00 L

Coarse powder of Terminalia chebula (pericarp) 2.67 kg

Fine powder of the following herbs:

Piper longum (fruits) 0.056 kg

Myristica fragrans (seeds) 0.056 kg

Syzygium aromaticum (flower buds) 0.056 kg

Cinnamomum zeylanicum (bark) 0.056 kg

Eletlaria cardamomum (seeds) 0.056 kg

Cinnamomum tamala (leaves) 0.056 kg

Mesua ferrea (flowers) 0.056 kg

Steps of the operation

1.1

Break the jaggery into pieces and dissolve in the juice of Eclipta alba.

1.2

Filter the juice through 80 mesh sieve and discard the solids.

1.3

Check and certify that the brewing tank is clean and in good condition as per S.O.P.

1.4

Transfer the juice into a brewing tank.

1.5

Add coarse powder of Terminalia chebula (pericarp) and stir well.

1.6

Put the lid of the brewing tank and leave it in the brewing room.

2.1

After 15 days open the brewing tank. Put the powders of the seven herbs into the brewed liquid.

2.2

Stir well, close the brewing tank and leave for five more days.

3.1

Check and certify that the Nutsche filter and vacuum pump are in good condition as per SOP.

3.2

After 5 days, filter the brewed BhrngarajUsavam through Nutsche filter packed with hyflo, using a vacuum pump.

3.3

Check and certify that the bottling machine is clean and in good condition as per S.O.P.

3.4

Bottle the Bhrngarajasavam.

Expected yield: 100 L.

of avaliha is rasakriya. Avaliha is usually administered along with milk, sugarcane juice, decoctions of grains, pancamiila group of herbs or vasd (Adhatoda vasica). When powder of herbs is used in the preparation of an avaliha, a four-fold quantity of sugar should be added. If jaggery is used, it should be double the quantity of powder. If any liquid is to be added, its quantity should be four times that of the powder. A properly prepared avaliha should fall like a rope if taken out of the

Avaleha being cooked in large steam-jacketed evaporators. Photo courtesy

FIGURE 3.16 Avaleha being cooked in large steam-jacketed evaporators. Photo courtesy: Rajah Healthy Acres, Kerala (www.ayurvedichospital.com).

vessel and poured from a ladle. It will also sink in water. If rolled between fingers, it should carry the imprint of the fingers and assume various shapes. Properly prepared avaliha possesses good color, aroma and taste (Murthy 2017d).

Industrial Manufacture

Avaleha has ingredients like kvatha or other fluids, jaggery, sugar or candied sugar, powders or paste of herbs and clarified butter, oil or honey. First of all, jaggery, sugar or candied sugar is dissolved in the fluid and filtered to remove insoluble particles. This sweet liquid is poured into large steam-jacketed evaporators, like the ones used in the manufacture of medicinal lipids (Figure 3.16). The evaporator is then heated over moderate heat and stirred continuously with ladles. Heating is stopped when the cooked mass acquires the consistency of soft wax. A fine powder of herbs is slowly sprinkled over the mass, by sifting through a sieve. The mass is stirred vigorously and continuously so that the product turns soft and homogeneous. While the mass is still hot, clarified butter or oil, if mentioned in the formula, is added and mixed by stirring. Honey, if part of the formula, is added when the cooked mass is cool. After thorough mixing, the avaliha is bottled (Figure 3.17). The master formula of Asvagandhadi avaliha serves as an example (Table 3.8). The avaliha should not be hard or appear like a thick fluid. It should be possible to roll the avaliha into small and soft balls. Growth of fungus or fermentation are signs of improper preparation of the avaliha (Anonymous 1978d).

Guḷika (Pills)

Textual Instructions

Gutika, vati, vatika, varti, modaka, pindi and guda are the Sanskrit synonyms of this dosage form. It is prepared by two methods. Firstly, the powder of herbs can be cooked with jaggery, sugar or

Bottling of avaleha. Photo courtesy

FIGURE 3.17 Bottling of avaleha. Photo courtesy: Rajah Healthy Acres, Kerala (www.ayurvedichospital. com).

guggul gum and then rolled into pills. Alternatively, the powder can be ground with any liquid. If sugar is to be added, its quantity should be four times that of the powder of herbs. The mixture is to be ground with twice the volume of water or other fluids like decoctions or juices of herbs, lemon juice, juice of pomegranate flowers or fruits, latex of Jatropha curcas, cow milk, breast milk, cow urine, goat urine, castor oil, honey, clarified butter or sesame oil. The grinding is carried out continuously for long periods lasting even 7 to 18 days. Finally, they are rolled into pills, dried under shade and stored (Vaidyan and Pillai 1985b; Murthy 2017c).

Industrial Manufacture

The herbs are cleaned and pulverized separately to fine powder that passes through an 80 mesh sieve. Weighed quantities of the herbs are then blended and placed on a granite grinding stone fitted with motorized pestles. The powder is ground to a soft paste by adding the specified liquids (Figure 3.18). If more than one liquid is to be used, they are added in succession. When the ground- mass acquires the desired consistency, fragrant drugs like musk (kastfiri) and camphor (karpiira), if mentioned in the formula, are added and ground again. Grinding is stopped when the mass does not stick to fingers when rolled. Pills are then rolled using a pill-rolling machine (Figure 3.19).

With the modernization of the manufacture of ayurvedic medicines, ayurvedic pills are also produced as tablets. In such case, the groundmass is dried in a tray dryer and pulverized. The resultant powder is put into a mass mixer. Required quantities of excipients are added to the powder, which is then converted into granules. The granulated material is dried in a fluid bed dryer. Tablets are

TABLE 3.8

Some Elements of the Master Formula for the Production of Asvagandhadi Avaleha

Ingredients

Fine powders (80 mesh sieve) of the following:

Withania somnifera (root) 28.32 kg

Hemidesmus indicus (root) 28.32 kg

Cuminum cyminum (fruit) 28.32 kg

Smilax china (root tuber) 28.32 kg

Vitis vinifera (dry fruit) 28.32 kg

Elettaria cardamomum (seed) 3.54 kg

Jaggery' 200.00 kg

Clarified butter 33.33 kg

Deionized water 66.67 L

Honey 66.67 kg

Steps of the operation

1.1

Break jaggery into pieces and put into a clean stainless steel drum.

1.2

Add 66.667 L of deionized water, stir and dissolve it completely.

1.3

Filter the fluid through 80 mesh sieve and remove the solids.

1.4

Check and certify that the steam-jacketed evaporator is clean as per S.O.P.

1.5

Pour the jaggery-water into the evaporator and start heating at low heat.

1.6

When the jaggery-water becomes slightly viscous sprinkle, the fine powders of Withania somnifera,

Hemidesmus indicus, Cuminum cyminum, Smilax china, Vitis vinifera and mix well by stirring with ladles.

1.7

Continue stirring and heating till the avaleha becomes more viscous.

1.8

Add fine powder of Elettaria cardamomum and mix well by stirring with ladles.

1.9

Add clarified butter to the mass and mix.

1.10

Confirm that the avaleha acquires the desired consistency.

1.11

Allow the avaleha to cool.

1.12

After the avaleha is cooled, add honey and mix well.

1.13

Bottle the avaleha.

Expected yield: 490 kg

later punched from the granulated material. The tablets are then packed in airtight containers. The master formula of Bilvadi Gutika serves as an example (Anonymous 1978e) (Table 3.9).

Lēpa (Paste)

Lepa is a paste of soft consistency, intended for external application. The crude drugs are powdered finely, mixed with specific fluid and made into a paste for applying on the body. Water, cow urine, sesame oil, castor oil, coconut oil, honey, butter, sour buttermilk and clarified butter are the adjuvants generally used (Anonymous 1978f).

A common lepa like Kunkumadi 1ёра is manufactured in a simple way. First of all, Kunkumadi taila is prepared according to the formula in authentic text and using the equipment described earlier (see Section 3.9.3 on medicinal lipids). Thereafter, weighed quantities of Kunkumadi taila and beeswax (80:20) are placed in a clean and dry stainless steel vessel. The vessel is warmed at very low heat and the oil is stirred frequently. When the wax is molten completely, the product is allowed to cool to room temperature. Thereafter, it is filled in collapsible tubes (Figure 3.20) (Anonymous 1978f).

Grinding of Bilvadi Gutika. Photo courtesy

FIGURE 3.18 Grinding of Bilvadi Gutika. Photo courtesy: Rajah Healthy Acres, Kerala, (www.ayurvedi- chospital.com).

Pills rolling machine. Photo courtesy

FIGURE 3.19 Pills rolling machine. Photo courtesy: Nagarjuna Herbal Concentrates Ltd, Kerala (www.

nagarjunaayurveda.com).

TABLE 3.9

Some Elements of the Master Formula for the Production of Bilvadi Gutika

Ingredients

Fine powders (80 mesh sieve) of the following:

Aegle marmelos (root) 1.155 kg

Ocimum sanctum (flower) 1.155 kg

Pongamia pinnata (seed) 1.155 kg

Valeriana wallichi (root) 1.155 kg

Cedrus deodara (heartwood) 1.155 kg

Terminalia chebula (pericarp) 1.155 kg

Terminalia bellirica (pericarp) 1.155 kg

Emblica officinalis (pericarp) 1.155 kg

Zingiber officinale (rhizome) 1.155 kg

Piper nigrum (fruit) 1.155 kg

Piper longum (fruit) 1.155 kg

Curcuma tonga (rhizome) 1.155 kg

Berberis aristata (stem) 1.155 kg

Goat urine 15.00 L

Steps of the operation

1.1

Check and certify that the grinder is clean as per S.O.P.

1.2

Load the herb powders into the grinder.

1.3

Load the fresh goat urine into the grinder.

1.4

Grind the powder till the urine completely gets absorbed into the paste, and the paste become non-sticky.

1.5

Ensure that the paste achieved the required consistency.

1.6

Check and certify that the pills rolling machine is clean as per S.O.P.

1.7

Roll the paste into pills.

1.8

Bottle the gulika in airtight containers.

Expected yield: 14.25 kg

Packing of Kunkumadi Lepa. Photo courtesy

FIGURE 3.20 Packing of Kunkumadi Lepa. Photo courtesy: Nagarjuna Herbal Concentrates Ltd, Kerala (www.nagarjunaayurveda.com).

 
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